|SEGOVIA, KAREN - Orise Fellow|
Submitted to: Animal Influenza Virus
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/28/2019
Publication Date: 5/14/2020
Citation: Kapczynski,D.R., Segovia,K. 2020. Techniques for the Measurement of Cell Mediated Immune Responses to Avian Influenza Virus. In: Spackman, E. editor. Animal Influenza Virus Methods and Protocols. 3rd edition. New York, NY: Humana Press. p. 227-245. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0346-8_17.
Interpretive Summary: Protective immunity against avian influenza virus is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The adaptive immune responses can be divided into two main types, humoral and cellular. Humoral immunity includes the production of antibodies from bursal-derived cells (B-cells) that function in virus-neutralization and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) which is dependent on thymus-derived cells (T-cells). In birds, the measurement of CMI is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian B- and T-cells following avian influenza virus (AIV) infection. The ability to measure CMI has steadily improved over the last few years, although few studies have examined its role in protection of birds against AIV. In this chapter we describe techniques to allow for a greater understanding of CMI in birds.
Technical Abstract: Cellular immune responses, through both T- and B-cells, are critical to understanding the role and regulation of lymphocytes following viral infection as well as defining responses to vaccination. T cells play a critical role in adaptive immunity including pathogen elimination through engagement of CD4 and CD8 receptors, which trigger signaling mechanisms. B cells contribute to generate antibodies following exposure to foreign pathogens through interactions with CD4+ lymphocytes. While these different cell types have distinctly different modes of action in terms of contributions to protection (cytotoxic versus antibody-mediated), they account for the majority of adaptive immunity induced following infection or vaccination. While the ability to measure cell-mediated immunity (CMI) has steadily improved, there is much to learn with regards to their contribution to protection of birds against disease induced by avian influenza virus (AIV). The rapidly increasing knowledge of genomic avian sequences along with increasing availability of monoclonal antibodies detecting avian cell-associated antigen markers has made techniques to measure CMI more specific and informative for researchers.