|Adams, Taylor - University Of Arkansas|
|Philipp, Dirk - University Of Arkansas|
|Burner, Dave - Retired ARS Employee|
|Jennings, John - University Of Arkansas|
|Mcpeake, Becky - University Of Arkansas|
|Pote, Dan - Retired ARS Employee|
|Rhein, Robert - University Of Arkansas|
Submitted to: American Journal of Plant Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/8/2019
Publication Date: 4/26/2019
Citation: Adams, T., Philipp, D., Burner, D.M., Jennings, J., McPeake, B., Ashworth, A.J., Pote, D.H., Burke, J.M., Rhein, R. 2019. White (Trifolium repens L.) and arrowleaf (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi) clover emergence in varying loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree alley spacings. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 10:659-669. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2019.104048.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2019.104048 Interpretive Summary: Producing timber, livestock, and forage and/or crops simultaneously in a shared setting is the primary goal of an agroforestry system. These systems provide potential year-long income to producers while saving land on a farm. Additionally, during some months of the year, traditional forages such as bermudagrass and tall fescue may not be as productive as legumes. Therefore, this study aimed to assess productivity of two clover species in varying pine tree row spacings. Overall, clover may be an option for producers in agroforestry systems, but the forage must be managed properly for weather (irrigation and/or drainage, at site).
Technical Abstract: Agroforestry systems have the potential to provide year-long income opportunities via the integrated forage or crop, timber, and livestock. Legumes are an attractive alternative option during the growing season when more traditional forages may not be as productive. The objective of this study was to test establishment of arrowleaf and white clover grown under varying pine tree alley widths. In 2011, existing forage was removed in 15-yr old loblolly pine tree row alleys of different widths (3.7, 4.9, 7.3, and 9.8 m), including an open area. Arrowleaf, as an annual, was replanted in 2012. Seedlings were counted twice/year, while dry matter was measured three times/year. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured in all alley widths to compare light penetration through the canopy. Hot and dry conditions occurred throughout 2012, affecting results. In 2012 and 2013, the greatest PAR for most treatments was observed in June. Seedling counts for all treatments were greatest immediately after establishment, and gradually declined throughout the course of the study. Dry matter yields increased throughout the growing season, and was greatest in arrowleaf clover in the open area on all measurement dates. However, increased weed pressure and repeated flooding affected yields. This study demonstrated that clover establishment in shady wooded areas is possible, but only under suitable environmental conditions.