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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Sunflower and Plant Biology Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #361604

Research Project: Novel Weed Management Solutions: Understanding Weed-Crop Interactions in Northern Climates

Location: Sunflower and Plant Biology Research

Title: Winter and summer annual biotypes of camelina have different morphology and seed characteristics

Author
item Wittenberg, Alex - North Dakota State University
item Anderson, James
item Berti, Marisol - North Dakota State University

Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/16/2019
Publication Date: 5/1/2019
Citation: Wittenberg, A., Anderson, J.V., Berti, M.T. 2019. Winter and summer annual biotypes of camelina have different morphology and seed characteristics. Industrial Crops and Products. 135:230-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.04.036.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.04.036

Interpretive Summary: Camelina consists of both summer- and winter-biotypes. Due to their superior winter-hardiness and beneficial ecosystem services, winter biotypes of camelina have gained interest as an alternative oilseed cover crop in the northern Great Plains. Unfortunately, some seed being offered as winter biotypes have turned out to be summer biotypes and, thus, have not been able to survive the harsh winter conditions experienced in North Dakota. In this study, morphological characteristics of seed and seedling from both summer- and winter-biotypes of camelina were evaluated. The outcomes from this research indicated that summer- and winter-biotypes do have some distinguishing morphological differences. The results further demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy analysis can also be used as a rapid, non-destructive method for distinguishing seed lots of summer, winter, or mixtures of summer- and winter-biotypes. Having a rapid method to determine the percentage of winter camelina in an unknown seed sample will be beneficial to those interested in selling or growing winter camelina as either a winter-hardy cover crop or as a winter annual cash crop.

Technical Abstract: Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] has two distinctive biotypes, summer and winter, with winter biotypes requiring a vernalization treatment to enter the reproductive phase. Increased interest in broadening the diversity of winter-hardy cover crops in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. to reduce soil erosion through the winter months has led seed companies to offer winter camelina seed outsourced from other states. Regrettably, in 2017, outsourced camelina seed from other states turned out to be summer biotypes that did not survive the North Dakota winter. The objectives of this study were to determine the morphological characteristics of seed and seedlings from summer- and winter-biotypes. Morphological characteristics of seedlings were determined by growing fifteen summer- and fifteen winter-biotypes in an environmental chamber. The experimental design was a RCBD with three replicates. To determine differences in seed wavelength absorbance between winter- and summer-biotypes both visible and near infrared spectra were examined, which encompass 400 to 2498 nm wavelengths. Mixtures of cultivars Joelle (winter) and one summer type were analyzed using a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), XDS Analyzer; seed mixtures were prepared in increments of 5% of ‘Joelle’. Mixtures of different lots of Joelle were prepared in increments of 25%. Significant interactions were present and observed for pairs of vegetative leaves, growth stage, height, leaf length, leaf width and the number of lobes. The equation for the ratio of winter seed (r2=0.96) performed very well, being able to distinguish know field grown cultivars used in the equation. Differences in seed and seedling morphological characteristics can be used to differentiate winter- or summer-biotypes. Having a rapid method to determine the percentage of winter camelina in an unknown seed sample will be very favorable for all producers, as well as seed companies, interested in growing winter camelina as either a winter-hardy cover crop or as a winter annual cash crop.