Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases ResearchTitle: Vesicular stomatitis virus transmission: A comparison of incriminated vectors
|ROZO-LOPEZ, PAULA - Kansas State University|
|LONDONO-RENTERIA, BERLIN - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: Insects
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/8/2018
Publication Date: 12/11/2018
Citation: Rozo-Lopez, P., Drolet, B.S., Londono-Renteria, B. 2018. Vesicular stomatitis virus transmission: A comparison of incriminated vectors. Insects. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects9040190.
Interpretive Summary: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is endemic in Central and the northern regions of South America, and occurs sporadically in the southwestern states of North America with economically devastating outbreaks in cattle, horses, and swine. Significant aspects of VS epidemiology remain unclear including geographic spread, maintenance in nature between outbreaks, the variety of implicated vector species, and factors influencing the periodicity of U.S. outbreaks. Since the early 1950’s, numerous insects have been reported as potentially playing an important role in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission. Some reports demonstrate only laboratory evidence, while others report field evidence; some report viral infections of insects while others have shown biological or mechanical transmission of virus to target host animals. We have present reported evidence for the role of a variety of insects in VS epidemiology and compare four key species of blood-feeding flies that have significant incriminating laboratory and or field evidence for transmission of VSV in the U.S. Having a single resource like this, with a comprehensive collection of information and citations regarding mechanical and biological vector transmission of VSV in the U.S., will be an extremely useful tool to VSV researchers and epidemiological endeavors going forward.
Technical Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a veterinary viral disease enzootic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the U.S., VS produces devastating economic losses, particularly in the southwestern states where the outbreaks display an occurrence pattern of 10-year intervals. To date, the mechanisms of geographic spread and maintenance cycles during epizootics remain unclear. This is due, in part, to the fact that VS epidemiology has a complex of variables to consider, including a broad range of vertebrate hosts, multiple routes of transmission, and an extensive diversity of suspected vector species acting as both, mechanical and biological vectors. Infection and viral progression within vector species are highly influenced by virus serotype, as well as environmental factors including temperature and seasonality; however, the mechanisms of viral transmission, including non-conventional pathways, are yet to be fully studied. Here we review VS epidemiology and transmission mechanisms, with comparisons of transmission evidence for the four most incriminated hematophagous dipteran taxa: Aedes mosquitoes, Lutzomyia sand flies, Simulium black flies, and Culicoides biting midges.