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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Geneva, New York » Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU) » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #359828

Research Project: Grapevine Genetics, Genomics and Molecular Breeding for Disease Resistance, Abiotic Stress Tolerance, and Improved Fruit Quality

Location: Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU)

Title: Rootstock effects on scion phenotypes in a 'Chambourcin' experimental vineyard

item MIGICOVSKY, ZOE - Dalhousie University
item HARRIS, ZACHARY - St Louis University
item KLEIN, LAURA - St Louis University
item LI, MAO - Danforth Plant Science Center
item MCDERMAID, ADAM - South Dakota State University
item CHITWOOD, DANIEL - Michigan State University
item FENNELL, ANNE - South Dakota State University
item KOVACS, LASZLO - Missouri State University
item KWASNIEWSKI, MISHA - University Of Missouri
item Londo, Jason
item MA, QIN - South Dakota State University
item MILLER, ALLISON - Danforth Plant Science Center

Submitted to: Horticulture Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/25/2019
Publication Date: 5/1/2019
Citation: Migicovsky, Z., Harris, Z.H., Klein, L.L., Li, M., Mcdermaid, A., Chitwood, D.H., Fennell, A., Kovacs, L.G., Kwasniewski, M., Londo, J.P., Ma, Q., Miller, A. 2019. Rootstock effects on scion phenotypes in a 'Chambourcin' experimental vineyard. Horticulture Research. 1.

Interpretive Summary: Understanding what parts of plant growth and physiology are controlled by the root or controlled by the shoot is a fundamental question of plant biology. Grafting is a process whereby the roots of one plant are attached to the shoot of another, forming a combination that is better adapted to cultivation. Grapevine is one of many types of woody perennial crops where grafting has become common. By attaching different species to the shoots of cultivated grapevines, growers can increase the grapevines resistance to soil based stresses. In this study, we examined how three different rootstocks were able to alter the physiology of the grapevine cultivar 'Chambourcin'. Rootstocks were able to change the shape of the shoot's leaves, the ions transported and deposited in the leaves, as well as gene expression patterns. We looked at these effects over two separate years and also examined the interaction of these different roots with effects of simulated drought. We were able to see that by changing the roots of 'Chambourcin' we could alter the responses of 'Chambourcin' to the environment. This study represented a first step toward discovering how much rootstocks can be used to help grapevines meet the challenges of increased pest and environmental stresses.

Technical Abstract: Understanding how root systems modulate shoot system phenotypes is a fundamental question in plant biology and will be useful in developing resilient agricultural crops. Grafting is a common horticultural practice that joins the roots (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot (scion) of another, providing an excellent method for investigating how these two organ systems affect each other. In this study, we use the French-American hybrid grapevine ‘Chambourcin’ (Vitis L.) as a model to explore the rootstock-scion relationship. We examined leaf shape, ion concentrations, and gene expression in ‘Chambourcin’ grown own-rooted as well as grafted to three different rootstocks (‘SO4’, ‘1103P’ and ‘3309C’) across two years and three different irrigation treatments. Results described here demonstrate that 1) the largest source of variation in leaf shape stems from the interaction of rootstock by irrigation; 2) leaf position, but also rootstock and rootstock by irrigation interaction, are the primary sources of variation in leaf ion concentrations; and 3) gene expression in scion leaves exhibited significantly different patterns of gene expression from ungrafted vines, and these expression patterns were rootstock-specific. Our work provides an initial description of the subtle and complex effect of grafting on ‘Chambourcin’ leaf morphology, ionomics and gene expression in grapevine scions. Further work across multiple years, environments and additional phenotypes is required in order to determine how the relationship between the rootstock and the scion can best be leveraged for adapting grapevines to a changing climate.