Location: Food Safety and Intervention Technologies ResearchTitle: Detection of Hepatitis A virus and other Enteric viruses in shellfish collected in the Gulf of Naples, Italy
|FUSCO, GIOVANNA - INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOPROFILATTIC|
|BOCCIA, FEDERICA - UNIVERSITY OF NAPLES|
|AMOROSO, MARIA - INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOPROFILATTIC|
|CIOFFI, BARBARA - INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOPROFILATTIC|
|ROSSI, RACHELE - INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOPROFILATTIC|
|FRATAMICO, PINA - FORMER ARS EMPLOYEE|
|LAROSA, GIUSEPPINA - ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITA|
|ANASTASIO, ANIELLO - UNIVERSITY OF NAPLES|
|PEPE, TIZIANA - THE UNIVERSITY OF NAPLES FEDERICO II|
Submitted to: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/13/2019
Publication Date: 8/3/2019
Citation: Fusco, G., Boccia, F., Kingsley, D.H., Amoroso, M.G., Cioffi, B., Rossi, R., Fratamico, P., Larosa, G., Anastasio, A., Pepe, T. 2019. Detection of Hepatitis A virus and other Enteric viruses in shellfish collected in the Gulf of Naples, Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16:2588.
Interpretive Summary: Mussels and cockles bioconcentrate and retain waterborne viruses that can cause hepatitis and gastroenteritis. This study was preformed to characterize the degree of virus contamination found within shellfish in a region in Southwest Italy. Study results indicate that within the sampling area there is substantial virus contamination for shellfish grown under Class B EU classification and some contamination found within EU Class A shellfish. Finding substantial amounts of hepatitis A virus contamination within these shellfish, as well a number of gastrointestinal viruses, indicates that growing waters in Southwest Italy are heavily impacted by human waste. The impact of annual rainfall on virus prevalence within shellfish is noted. Also, a particular strain of HAV not ordinarily found in southern Italy was identified in shellfish that is similar to a strain associated with a European outbreak among the male homosexual community. The presence of enteric viruses in mollusks that are pathogenic for humans highlights the importance of periodically monitoring production areas to guarantee safe products for consumers.
Technical Abstract: From 2015 to 2017, 289 bivalve mollusk samples were obtained from 20 farmed shellfish operations in three coastal areas of the Campania region in Southwest Italy. The samples were screened by qPCR and RT-qPCR for the presence of viral food-borne pathogens known to cause infectious hepatitis, namely hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), as well as viruses known to cause human gastroenteritis, namely norovirus GI (NoV GI) and GII (NoV GII), rotavirus (RV), astrovirus (AsV), sapovirus (SaV), aichivirus-1 (AiV-1), and adenovirus (ADV). HAV was detected in 26 out of 289 (8.9%) samples examined, NoV GI in 31 (10.8%), NoV GII in 114 (39.7%), RV in 26 (9.0%), AsV in 60 (20.8%), SaV in 54 (18.8%), AiV in 16 (5.6%), and AdV in 16 (5.6%) samples. HEV was not identified in any sample. Overall 159 of 289 samples tested positive for the presence of at least one virus. Of the 159 virus-positive samples, 99 tested positive for multiple viruses. Two HAV-positive mussels were confirmed by sequencing analysis as genotyping IA. The hexon protein gene from an ADV-positive sample was amplified by nested PCR and based on sequence analysis, it was classified as human adenovirus type 41, sharing 100% nucleotide identity with other human ADV strains currently in GenBank. We confirm the circulation of enteric viruses in mollusks pathogenic for humans, highlighting the importance of periodically monitoring production areas to guarantee to consumers safe products for consumers.