|TRNENY, OLDRICH - AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, LTD. TROUBSKO|
|BRUS, JAN - PALACKY UNIVERSITY|
|HRADILOVA, IVETA - PALACKY UNIVERSITY|
|RATHORE, ABHISHEK - INTERNATIONAL CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SEMI-ARID TROPICS (ICRISAT) - INDIA|
|DAS, ROMA - INTERNATIONAL CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SEMI-ARID TROPICS (ICRISAT) - INDIA|
|KOPECKY, PAVEL - CROP RESEARCH INSTITUTE - CZECH REPUBLIC|
|Coyne, Clarice - Clare|
|SMYKAL, PETR - PALACKY UNIVERSITY|
Submitted to: Genes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/29/2018
Publication Date: 11/6/2018
Citation: Trneny, O., Brus, J., Hradilova, I., Rathore, A., Das, R., Kopecky, P., Coyne, C.J., Reeves, P.A., Richards, C.M., Smykal, P. 2018. Molecular evidence for two domestication events in the pea crop. Genes. 9(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9110535.
Interpretive Summary: About ten thousand years ago humans began the domestication of crops and animals initiating one of the largest changes in human history. There are two broad views of the origin of plant cultivation and domestication especially in the Near East. One proposes that crops origin was singular, rather fast (hundreds of years), and took place in the so-called small “core area” of south-eastern Turkey and adjoining parts of Syria, followed by further evolution of domesticated crops that improved their quality. The alternative view is that domestication was a protracted process with multiple origins of crops that went on slowly and in parallel in multiple locations. Recent studies propose that the use of wild cereals and pulses considerably predate their domestication. Using genome wide analysis of 14K polymorphic DNA markers on a set of wild P. elatius and P. fulvum and domesticated accessions we demonstrated that domesticated P. sativum and the Ethiopian pea (P. abyssinicum), were derived from different P. elatius genepools. Thus represent two independent domestication events.
Technical Abstract: Pea, one of the founder crops from the Near East, has two wild species: P. sativum subsp. elatius, with a wide distribution centered on the Mediterranean, and P. fulvum, restricted to Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan. Using genome wide analysis of 14,146 polymorphic markers on a set of wild P. elatius (134) and P. fulvum (20) and 74 domesticated accessions (64 P. sativum landraces and 10 P. abyssinicum) we demonstrated that domesticated P. sativum and the Ethiopian pea (P. abyssinicum), were derived from different P. elatius genepools. Therefore pea has at least two domestication events. The analysis did not support a hybrid origin of P. abyssinicum, which was likely introduced into Ethiopia and Yemen, followed by eco-geographic adaptation. Both P. sativum and P. abyssinicum share traits typical of a crop, such as non-dormant seeds. Non-dormant seeds were also found in several wild P. elatius accessions which could be the result of crop to wild introgression, or natural variation that may have been present during pea domestication. A sub-group of P. elatius overlaps with P. sativum landraces. This may be a consequence of bidirectional gene-flow or may suggest that this group of P. elatius is the closest extant wild relative of P. sativum.