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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Boston, Massachusetts » Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #358927

Research Project: Cardiovascular Nutrition and Health

Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

Title: Comparison of diets enriched in simple, refined or unrefined carbohydrate on subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammatory markers and serum cardiometabolic risk indicators

Author
item Meng, Huicui - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Matthan, Nirupa - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Fried, Susan - The Icahn School Of Medicine At Mount Sinai
item Benitez, Silvia - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Walker, Maura - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Galluccio, Jean - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Lichtenstein, Alice - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2018
Publication Date: 6/9/2018
Citation: Meng, H., Matthan, N., Fried, S.K., Benitez, S., Walker, M., Galluccio, J., Lichtenstein, A.H. 2018. Comparison of diets enriched in simple, refined or unrefined carbohydrate on subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammatory markers and serum cardiometabolic risk indicators [abstract]. American Society of Nutrition 2018 Meeting. Abstract No. OR29-06.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Objective: Data for direct comparisons among different types of carbohydrate (simple, refined and unrefined) on cardiometabolic risk indicators are limited. Our aim was to determine the relative comparability for an isocaloric exchange of simple-carbohydrate (SC; e.g., sucrose, high fructose corn syrup), refined-carbohydrate (RC; e.g., white rice, bread/pasta made from white flour) and unrefined-carbohydrate (UC; e.g., brown rice, bread/pasta made from whole wheat flour) on adipose tissue inflammatory markers, ex vivo cholesterol efflux of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum cardiometabolic risk indicators. Methods: Participants (postmenopausal women and men [N = 11], 65 +/- 8 y, BMI 29.8 +/- 3.2 kg/m^2, LDL-cholesterol >/= 2.6 mmol/L) were provided with each of 3 diets (60% E total carbohydrate, 15% E protein, 25% E fat) for 4.5 weeks using a randomized cross-over design with 2-week washout periods between phases. The variable component was an isocaloric exchange of SC, RC or UC containing foods. Body weight was maintained within +/-2 kg. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was aspirated to assess macrophage and inflammatory marker gene expression, ex vivo cytokine secretion and adipocyte area; PBMCs were isolated to assess ex vivo cholesterol efflux; and serum lipid, lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and inflammatory marker concentrations were determined. Results: Adipose tissue gene expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion was similar among diets. Mean adipocyte area was larger and percent of large adipocytes (area > 1800 (mu)m^2) was higher at the end of the RC compared to the SC or UC enriched diet phases (p < 0.01). Fasting and postprandial serum cardiometabolic risk indicators and ex vivo cholesterol efflux were similar among diets with the exception of higher fasting serum LDL- and nonHDL-cholesterol concentrations after the RC compared to SC or UC enriched diets (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Consuming a diet enriched in RC compared to SC or UC resulted in larger mean abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte area and higher fasting serum LDL- and nonHDL-cholesterol concentrations, but had little effect on other cardiometabolic risk indicators. This study raises the intriguing possibility that RC may have unique adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk indicators distinct from SC and UC.