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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Bowling Green, Kentucky » Food Animal Environmental Systems Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #358852

Research Project: Developing Safe, Efficient and Environmentally Sound Management Practices for the Use of Animal Manure

Location: Food Animal Environmental Systems Research

Title: Epidemiology of camelpox in Afar region of Ethiopia

Author
item Aregawi, Weldegebrial - Ethiopian Institute Of Agricultural Research
item Agga, Getahun
item Gishe, Jemal - Tennessee State University
item Abdi, Reta - Long Island University

Submitted to: Research Workers in Animal Diseases Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/16/2018
Publication Date: 12/3/2018
Citation: Aregawi, W.G., Agga, G.E., Gishe, J., Abdi, R. 2018. Epidemiology of camelpox in Afar region of Ethiopia. Research Workers in Animal Diseases Conference Proceedings. Paper No. 150.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Camelpox is endemic in most camel rearing regions of the world. It is linked with a significant economic losses. However, limited information is available on its epidemiology in Ethiopia. This study investigated the seroprevalence, risk factors and participatory epidemiology (PE) of camelpox in Afar region of Ethiopia. Sera of 384 dromedary camels were collected from 31 herds in 5 pastoral associations (PAs) in two districts from Afar region. The sera were tested for the presence of viral antibodies by virus neutralization test. We used multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models to analyze seroprevalence data. Herd and PA were modeled as random effects. District, herd size (continuous variable), age (as a categorical variable), and sex (as a categorical variable) were modeled as a fixed effect variable. We used maximum Likelihood Estimator method to calculate the basic reproduction number from age stratified seroprevalence data. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used for the participatory data to assess agreements between the informants in identifying seasonal occurrences of the top five camel diseases in the study area. Camelpox antibodies were detected in 19.3% of camels, 81% of herds, and in all five (100%) PAs. The seroprevalence did not significantly vary between herds, PAs or districts suggesting the widespread occurrence of the disease. Estimated age stratified basic reproduction number (R0) was 1.25 (95% CI: 0.62 – 2.19). PE informants revealed that camelpox was identified as one of the top five common camel diseases in the area. Based on PE informants the clinical disease was more common in young camels. However, seropositivity of sera was higher in older. Camelpox is endemic and one of the top five diseases of camels in Afar pastoral area. The seasonal migration and seasonal commingling practice of camel herds may explain its widespread occurrence. Vaccination and improved camel management practices particularly during the high-risk period can reduce its transmission.