Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases ResearchTitle: Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: Recent Developments with these Globally Re-emerging Infections of Ruminant Animals Author
|Maclachlan, N. James - University Of California, Davis|
|Zientara, Stephan - French Agency For Food, Environmental And Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES)|
|Richt, Juergen - Kansas State University|
|Savini, Giovanni - Istituto Zooprofilattico|
Submitted to: Popular Publication
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/12/2018
Publication Date: 1/24/2019
Citation: Maclachlan, N., Zientara, S., Wilson, W.C., Richt, J., Savini, G. 2019. Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: Recent Developments with these Globally Re-emerging Infections of Ruminant Animals. Popular Publication. 34:56-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2018.12.005.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2018.12.005 Interpretive Summary: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are closely related insect-transmitted viral pathogens of domestic and wild ruminants. These viruses are considered re-emerging pathogens because of significant economic losses due to recent movement of strains into new regions. There are multiple genetic types and mechanisms for genetic variation that affect the disease outcome. This paper summarize recent novel developments regarding characterization of the global ecology and biological behavior of these two viruses.
Technical Abstract: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are closely related arboviruses that are classified in the genus Orbivirus within the subfamily Sedoreovirinae of the family Reoviridae. These viruses are transmitted to wild and domestic ruminant animals by multiple species of hematophagous Culicoides midges. Whereas BTV is a cause of disease and significant economic loss in ruminant livestock, EHDV is most significant as a pathogen of ruminant wildlife, notably white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgnianus). BTV and EHDV are genetically diverse, with multiple serotypes and myriads of genetically distinct strains of each virus. Genetic diversity within these virus species occurs as a consequence of both genetic drift and genetic shift; genetic shift occurs as a consequence of reassortment of viral gene segments during infections of either animals (ruminants) or insect vectors (Culicoides midges) with more than one virus serotype or strain, whereas genetic drift occurs as a consequence of quasispecies replication of the virus with subsequent founder effect in either insect or animal hosts. The individual species of Culicoides midge that serve as vectors of these viruses differ between regions of the world, as do the serotypes and strains of BTV and EHDV that occur within each global “episystem.” Thus, the respective global ranges of BTV and EHDV infections are similar but certainly not identical. Furthermore, there have been profound recent changes in the global distribution and biological behavior of both BTV and EHDV. Given that the epidemiology, pathogenesis and other features of BTV and EHDV infections have recently been reviewed comprehensively, the purpose of this article is only to summarize recent novel developments regarding characterization of the global ecology and biological behavior of these two viruses.