Location: Foreign Animal Disease ResearchTitle: The different tactics of foot-and-mouth disease virus to evade innate immunity
|MEDINA, GISSELLE - Codagenix, Inc|
|DIAZ SAN-SEGUNDO, FAYNA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|STENFELDT, CAROLINA - University Of Minnesota|
|De Los Santos, Teresa|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/17/2018
Publication Date: 11/12/2018
Citation: Medina, G.N., Diaz San-Segundo, F., Stenfeldt, C., Arzt, J., De los Santos, T.B. 2018. The different tactics of foot-and-mouth disease virus to evade innate immunity. Frontiers in Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02644.
Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be the viral disease posing the greatest economical threat to agriculture worldwide. FMD occurs continuously in large areas of the world, particularly those facing the greatest demand for animal protein for their growing population. Countries resort to physical and trade barriers, yet incursions into previously FMD-free countries occur and are often controlled by mass slaughter of susceptible animals. Like all viruses, FMDV counteracts the immune response. In this manuscript we summarize and discuss the knowledge about FMDV virulence factors and its interactions with the host in cell culture and in cattle and swine.
Technical Abstract: Like all pathogens, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is recognized by the immune system inducing a heightened immune response mainly mediated by type I and type III interferons (IFNs). To overcome the strong antiviral response induced by these cytokines, FMDV has evolved many strategies exploiting each region of its small RNA genome. These include: a) inhibition of IFN induction at the transcriptional and translational level, b) inhibition of protein trafficking; c) blockage of specific post-translational modifications in proteins that regulate innate immune signaling; d) modulation of autophagy; e) inhibition of stress granule formation; and f) in vivo modulation of immune cell function. Here, we summarize and discuss FMDV virulence factors and the host immune footprint that characterize infection in cell culture and in the natural hosts.