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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Hilo, Hawaii » Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center » Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #355144

Research Project: Pre-and Postharvest Treatment of Tropical Commodities to Improve Quality and Increase Trade Through Quarantine Security

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Host status of ‘Scifresh' apples to the invasive fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Author
item Follett, Peter
item Pinero, Jaime - University Of Massachusetts
item Jamieson, Lisa - New Zealand Institute Of Plant & Food Research
item Souder, Steven
item Waddell, Barbara - New Zealand Institute Of Plant & Food Research
item Wall, Marisa

Submitted to: Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2019
Publication Date: 2/3/2019
Citation: Follett, P.A., Pinero, J., Jamieson, L., Souder, S., Waddell, B., Wall, M.M. 2019. Host status of ‘Scifresh' apples to the invasive fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology. 22:458-470.

Interpretive Summary: Studies were conducted to determine if apple is a host for three invasive tephritid fruit fly species that may enter New Zealand or other kiwifruit growing areas. Punctured and unpunctured fruits of 'Jazz' apples were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillet) (melon fly), or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), in screen cages outdoors for 24h, and then held on sand in the laboratory for three weeks for pupal development and adult emergence. Overall, apple was a poor host for all three fruit flies. Puncturing fruit facilitated infestation. The average development time was 2X as long as development on from papaya for all fruit fly species. Field infestation of apples suspended from papaya trees resulted in no infestation by B.dorsalis, or B.cucurbitae under natural conditions. This information will help inform decisions about quarantine restrictions and potential crop loss in the event of incursions of these fruit flies into New Zealand or other apple producing countries.

Technical Abstract: No-choice cage and field infestation studies were conducted to determine if the fruit of apples (Malus domestica L., cv. ‘Jazz’) is a host for three invasive tephritid fruit fly species that may enter New Zealand or other apple growing areas. In screen cage tests, punctured and unpunctured fruits of ‘Jazz’ apples were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillet) (melon fly), or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), in screen cages outdoors for 24h, and then held on sand in the laboratory for four weeks for pupal development and adult emergence. Punctured fruit produced an average of 619.4, 0.8 and 129.5 puparia per kg of fruit for B.dorsalis, B.cucurbitae and C.capitata, respectively. Unpunctured fruit produced an average of 269.4, 4.3 and 70.1 puparia per kg of fruit for B.dorsalis, B.cucurbitae and C.capitata, respectively. For comparison, papaya, a preferred host for all three species, was also tested. Punctured and unpunctured papaya fruit produced 464-735 and 206-675 puparia per kg of fruit, respectively, across all species. In general, the average weight of fruit fly puparia from apple was significantly less (41-71%) than puparia reared from papaya, and development times were slower on apple compared to papaya. In screen cage tests, ‘Jazz’ apple was a moderately good host for B.dorsalis and C.capitata, and a very poor host for B.cucurbitae. Field infestation of ‘Jazz’ apple fruits suspended from papaya trees resulted in no infestation by B.dorsalis or B.cucurbitae under natural conditions. This information will help inform decisions about quarantine restrictions and potential crop loss in the event of incursions of these fruit flies into New Zealand or other apple producing countries.