Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality ResearchTitle: Bran characteristics influence the quality of whole wheat pancakes and baking powder biscuits
|MA, FENGYUN - The Ohio State University|
|LEE, YUYOUNG - Rural Development Administration - Korea|
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/3/2019
Publication Date: 4/6/2019
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/6788041
Citation: Ma, F., Lee, Y., Baik, B.V. 2019. Bran characteristics influence the quality of whole wheat pancakes and baking powder biscuits. Cereal Chemistry. 96(3):497-507. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10159.
Interpretive Summary: Consumer acceptance of whole wheat products could be improved by minimizing the detrimental influence of bran on product quality. Bran is the major contributor to the decreased product quality and sensory acceptance of whole wheat foods. The identification of less detrimental bran characteristics and the wheat varieties carrying those characteristics are, therefore, the logical approaches for production of whole wheat foods comparable to those made with refined flour. We observed substantial differences in the quality of whole wheat pancakes and whole wheat biscuits prepared from blends of a refined flour and the brans of different wheat varieties showing a large variation in bran characteristics. The protein content of bran influenced both the diameter of whole wheat pancakes and the height of whole wheat biscuits as indicated by the significant relationships between bran characteristics and the quality attributes of whole wheat pancakes and baking powder biscuits. Whole wheat meals containing brans of relatively high protein content produced whole wheat pancakes of comparable diameter to those made with the corresponding wheat flours. Whole wheat meals containing brans of high protein and soluble dietary fiber contents, and low total arabinoxylan and insoluble dietary fiber contents, produced biscuits with intermediate-to-high height and low-to-intermediate shape factor. This information will be helpful to food manufacturers in choosing wheat grains/varieties or brans, and serve as a guideline for breeding wheat varieties that are suitable for making desirable-quality whole wheat pancakes and biscuits.
Technical Abstract: Background and objectives: Bran characteristics differ widely among wheat varieties and influence the quality of whole wheat products. The objective of this study was to identify bran characteristics that influence the quality of whole wheat pancakes and baking powder biscuits made from whole wheat meals (WWMs), which were blends of the brans of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and two wheat flours. Findings: Pancake diameters of 34 WWMs ranged from 106.6 to 116.0 mm. Biscuit height and shape factor (SF) of 34 WWMs ranged from 28.8 to 34.2 mm and 1.10-1.24, respectively. Bran protein content showed positive relationships with pancake diameter and biscuit height for both wheat flours blended with brans. Water-retention capacity, free phenolics and water-extractable arabinoxylan contents of bran exhibited significant relationships with pancake diameter and biscuit SF in WWMs for only one wheat flour. Conclusions: WWMs containing brans of high protein content produced pancakes of comparable diameter to those made with wheat flour. WWMs containing bran of high protein and soluble dietary fiber (DF) contents, and low arabinoxylan and insoluble DF contents produced biscuits with intermediate-to-high height and low-to-intermediate SF. Significance and novelty: The results identify bran characteristics desirable for making whole wheat pancakes and biscuits.