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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Plant Polymer Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #354617

Research Project: Improved Utilization of Proteinaceous Crop Co-Products

Location: Plant Polymer Research

Title: Emulsification properties of amylose-fatty sodium salt inclusion complexes

item Hay, William
item Fanta, George
item Felker, Frederick
item Peterson, Steven - Steve
item Skory, Christopher - Chris
item Hojilla-Evangelista, Milagros - Mila
item Biresaw, Girma
item Selling, Gordon

Submitted to: Food Hydrocolloids
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/18/2018
Publication Date: 12/20/2018
Citation: Hay, W.T., Fanta, G.F., Felker, F.C., Peterson, S.C., Skory, C.D., Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P., Biresaw, G., Selling, G.W. 2019. Emulsification properties of amylose-fatty sodium salt inclusion complexes. Food Hydrocolloids. 90:490-499.

Interpretive Summary: Emulsifiers are used daily by most Americans. These compounds allow incompatible materials, such as oil and water, to remain properly mixed without separation. A classic example of systems which use emulsifiers are salad dressing and ice cream. Emulsifiers are also used in non-food application to trap dirt and oil. Classic examples of these systems include shampoo and detergents. We have developed a technique for producing biobased high value, low cost, emulsifiers by modifying starch. The process uses the natural ability of starches to associate with typically water insoluble materials. Traditionally for standard starch to be converted into an emulsifier, it must be modified through reaction with regulated chemicals. Our technology utilizes entirely safe food grade materials, corn starch and a vegetable oil derivative, to make highly effective emulsifiers. The emulsifiers we developed outperformed the standard modified starch used in current food production. The properties of these new starch compounds can be adapted easily to fit the requirements of food and industrial producers. The technology will be useful to all participants in the corn value chain. In addition, companies involved with food and beverage production will benefit. The new emulsifiers are produced from food safe, low cost, biobased materials which can be rapidly adopted for industrial scale production.

Technical Abstract: Amylose complexes formed with fatty sodium salts were evaluated for their emulsification, foaming, and rheological properties. Amylose inclusion complexes (AIC) were produced in a pressurized microwave reactor using the sodium salts of fatty acids having carbon chain lengths of 12-22. The AIC were isolated by freeze drying, re-dissolved into aqueous solutions (0.1-3.0% solids) and their surface and rheological properties were then characterized. The AICs successfully formed emulsions with corn oil. The emulsifying properties of the various AIC, as well as long-term emulsion storage stability were determined. The AIC have superior emulsifying activity at neutral and alkaline pH, and superior stability at alkaline pH, compared with commercial octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch. In neutral aqueous solutions, the sodium arachidate (C20) AIC had 31% greater emulsifying activity, and the sodium behenate (C22) AIC had 60% greater emulsion stability than OSA starch. Emulsions formed with the AIC were stable during long-term storage as the oil droplets were resistant to coalescence. Stability increased with fatty acid salt chain length due to viscosity differences, with solutions of the higher molecular weight fatty acid salt AICs having greater viscosity. All AIC emulsions had enhanced emulsifying activity with increased alkalinity of the continuous phase. The AIC are surface active polymeric emulsifiers which did not produce foams. The AIC are effective biodegradable emulsifiers produced from readily available inexpensive food grade ingredients formed via van der Waals rather than chemical bonds.