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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Ithaca, New York » Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture & Health » Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #354394

Research Project: Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc and Select Phytochemicals for Improved Health

Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research

Title: Evaluation of selected ultra-trace minerals in commercially available dry dog foods

Author
item WAKSHLAG, JOSEPH - Cornell University - New York
item Glahn, Raymond
item KIM, HYUN-TAE - Cornell University - New York
item LOFTUS, JOHN - Cornell University - New York
item GAGNE, JASON - Cornell University - New York
item RUTZKE, MICHAEL - Cornell University - New York

Submitted to: Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/10/2018
Publication Date: 6/20/2018
Citation: Wakshlag, J., Glahn, R.P., Kim, H., Loftus, J., Gagne, J., Rutzke, M. 2018. Evaluation of selected ultra-trace minerals in commercially available dry dog foods. Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports. 9:43-51. https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S165890.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S165890

Interpretive Summary: The objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of ultra-trace minerals such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silica and aluminum in several commercially available dry dog foods and compare these with current the average daily dietary intake for humans. Human values were used as safe canine intake levels for these minerals is unknown. To do so, the comparison was based on the national research council (NRC)'s recommendation of a 2900 kilocalorie diet for a 79 kg (174 lb) human. Forty-nine over-the-counter dry foods formulated for maintenance of healthy dogs (i.e. maintenance foods) were analyzed. The results showed that chromium, molybdenum and aluminum concentrations in all of the dog foods were at levels that would be considered above average for daily human consumption. Nickel and silica intakes were comparable with human intake patterns, however there were several foods where nickel and silica levels exceeded the upper range of human daily intakes by almost 2 fold. In conclusion, although these trace minerals found in dog foods were above the expected average daily human intake, no evidence of potential chronic toxic exposure would be expected based on toxic intake concentrations, as published for humans by the World Health Organization. The large range of silica intake from various foods may have health implications in dogs prone to silica urolithiasis (ie. kidney stones). Further studies investigating the absorbability (ie. bioavailability) of these ultra-trace minerals and establishing dietary ultra-trace mineral allowance would be ideal; however, based on these findings, consumption of these ultra-trace minerals in over the counter dry dog foods appears safe.

Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silica and aluminum in several commercially available dry dog foods and compare these with current World Health Organizations (WHO) mean human daily dietary intake. This comparison was based on the national research council (NRC)'s recommendation of a 2900 kilocalorie diet for a 79 kg human and to evaluate potential for toxic intake standards, if applicable. Forty-nine over-the-counter dry foods formulated for maintenance of healthy dogs (i.e. maintenance foods) were analyzed. Concentrations of the ultra-trace minerals were measured via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and represented per 1,000 kcals (Mcal) for comparative purposes as it relates to common intake in dogs in comparison to humans. The results showed that chromium, molybdenum and aluminum concentrations in all of the dog foods were at levels that would be considered above average human daily consumption on a caloric basis. Nickel and silica calculated intakes per megacalorie were comparable with human intake patterns, while both trace minerals displayed outliers exceeding at least 2 fold of upper range of human daily intakes. In conclusion, these trace minerals found in dog foods were above the expected average daily human intake for humans on a caloric basis with no evidence of potential chronic toxic exposure based on presumptive intake extrapolated from WHO published toxic intake concentrations. The large range of silica intake from various foods (2.96-83.67 mg/1000 kcals) may have health implications in dogs prone to silica urolithiasis. Further studies investigating bioavailability of these ultra-trace minerals and establishing dietary ultra-trace mineral allowance would be ideal, however based on these findings consumption of these ultra-trace minerals in over the counter dry dog foods appears safe.