Skip to main content
ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Nat'l Clonal Germplasm Rep - Tree Fruit & Nut Crops & Grapes » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #353937

Research Project: Managing Genetic Resources and Associated Information of Grape, Tree Fruit, Tree Nut, and Other Specialty Crops Adapted to Mediterranean Climates

Location: Nat'l Clonal Germplasm Rep - Tree Fruit & Nut Crops & Grapes

Title: Patterns of genomic and phenomic diversity in wine and table grapes

Author
item Migicovsky, Zoe - Dalhousie University
item Sawler, Jason - Dalhousie University
item Gardner, Kyle - Dalhousie University
item Aradhya, Mallikarjuna
item Prins, Bernard - Bernie
item Schwaninger, Heidi
item Bustamante, Carlos - Stanford University
item Buckler, Edward - Cornell University - New York
item Zhong, Gan-yuan
item Brown, Patrick - University Of Illinois
item Myles, Sean - Dalhousie University

Submitted to: Horticulture Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/16/2017
Publication Date: 8/2/2017
Citation: Migicovsky, Z., Sawler, J., Gardner, K.M., Aradhya, M.K., Prins, B.H., Schwaninger, H.R., Bustamante, C.D., Buckler, E.S., Zhong, G., Brown, P.J., Myles, S. 2017. Patterns of genomic and phenomic diversity in wine and table grapes. Horticulture Research. 4(17035):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2017.35.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2017.35

Interpretive Summary: Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide, and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape accessions that belong to one of the world’s largest grape gene banks, the grape germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture. We find that phenological events throughout the growing season are correlated, and quantify the marked difference in size between table and wine grapes. By pairing publicly available historical phenotype data with genome-wide polymorphism data, we identify large effect loci controlling traits that have been targeted during domestication and breeding, including hermaphroditism, lighter skin pigmentation and muscat aroma. Breeding for larger berries in table grapes was traditionally concentrated in geographic regions where Islam predominates and alcohol was prohibited, whereas wine grapes retained the ancestral smaller size that is more desirable for winemaking in predominantly Christian regions. We uncover a novel locus with a suggestive association with berry size that harbors a signature of positive selection for larger berries. Our results suggest that religious rules concerning alcohol consumption have had a marked impact on patterns of phenomic and genomic diversity in grapes.

Technical Abstract: Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide, and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape accessions that belong to one of the world’s largest grape gene banks, the grape germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture. We find that phenological events throughout the growing season are correlated, and quantify the marked difference in size between table and wine grapes. By pairing publicly available historical phenotype data with genome-wide polymorphism data, we identify large effect loci controlling traits that have been targeted during domestication and breeding, including hermaphroditism, lighter skin pigmentation and muscat aroma. Breeding for larger berries in table grapes was traditionally concentrated in geographic regions where Islam predominates and alcohol was prohibited, whereas wine grapes retained the ancestral smaller size that is more desirable for winemaking in predominantly Christian regions. We uncover a novel locus with a suggestive association with berry size that harbors a signature of positive selection for larger berries. Our results suggest that religious rules concerning alcohol consumption have had a marked impact on patterns of phenomic and genomic diversity in grapes.