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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #353794

Research Project: Improving Quality, Stability, and Functionality of Oils and Bioactive Lipids

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Wax oleogels

item BLAKE, ALEXIA - Medreleaf Corporation
item TORO-VAZQUEZ, JORGE - Autonomous University Of San Luis Potosi
item SATO, KIYOTAKA - University Of Hiroshima
item Hwang, Hong-Sik
item MARANGONI, ALEJANDRO - University Of Guelph

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/21/2018
Publication Date: 10/2/2018
Citation: Blake, A.I., Toro-Vazquez, J.F., Hwang, H.-S. 2018. Wax oleogels. In: Marangoni, A.G., Garti, N., editors. Edible Oleogels, Structure and Health Implications. 2nd edition. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier. p. 133-171.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The deleterious effects of saturated and trans fats on cardiovascular health are well established. Saturated and trans fats increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) serum levels, while trans fats also lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) serum levels, which has been shown to increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, stroke, and other metabolic maladies. Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) are the primary source of industrially produced trans fats. Due to their adverse effects on health, various regulatory bodies have passed legislation restricting the addition of PHOs to foods. This changing legislation has instigated a need for developing suitable alternatives to PHOs and trans fats. Given the contribution of these fats to food’s stability and sensory properties, it is essential that these replacements mimic the functionality of trans fats so that the integrity of the food product is not compromised. This caveat has complicated the development of trans fat replacements, and inspired the creation of a new field of lipid research known as Oleogels. The structure is solid at room temperature, despite being predominantly (>90%) liquid oil. Given that oil is devoid of trans fats and contains reduced levels of saturated fats, the replacement of solid fat with an oleogel is expected to improve the nutritional profile of a food product. However, many criteria must be met in order for oleogels to be considered as fat replacement candidates. Therefore, much research over the last decade has focused not only on identifying novel gelator options, but also on elucidating their oil binding mechanism, and the effect of processing conditions on their oil binding capacity. As with fat crystal networks, there is a strong relationship between molecular interactions, crystal and network morphology, and macroscopic functionality. Understanding this complex structure-function relationship is the key to unlocking the full potential of oleogels as suitable replacements for trans fats.