|NGUYEN, NHUNG - University Of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences - Austria|
|VARGA, ELIZABETH - University Of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences - Austria|
|BAUMGARTNER, SABINE - University Of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences - Austria|
|BERTHILLER, FRANZ - University Of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences - Austria|
|ADAM, GERHARD - University Of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences - Austria|
Submitted to: World Mycotoxin Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/4/2018
Publication Date: 12/21/2018
Citation: Nguyen, N.T., Varga, E., Maragos, C., Baumgartner, S., Adam, G., Berthiller, F. 2018. Cross-reactivity of commercial and non-commercial deoxynivalenol-antibodies to emerging trichothecenes and common deoxynivalenol-derivatives. World Mycotoxin Journal. 12:45-53. https://doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2018.2363.
Interpretive Summary: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxin produced by certain fungi that contaminate cereal grains. The fungi, and the toxin, are frequent issues in wheat, barley, and corn grown throughout the world. To screen for the presence of DON and related trichothecene toxins, commercial test kits using antibodies (immunoassays or ELISAs) are available. In this research, scientists from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Vienna, Austria) and an ARS scientist in Peoria, Illinois, investigated six commercially available test kits, and two non-commercial immunoassays developed by the USDA, for their ability to detect DON and related compounds (NX-toxins).None of the commercial test kits detected (cross-reacted with) the NX-toxins, whereas one of the non-commercial ELISAs did. This suggests that the NX-toxins are likely avoiding detection when grain is tested with the commercial kits. The significance of the inability of commercial test kits to detect the NX-toxins will depend upon how widespread these toxins are eventually found to be.
Technical Abstract: Immunoassay based techniques are an important and fast option for the detection and quantification of mycotoxins. They are frequently used as on-site screening tools in grain elevators, storage and production facilities. However, accurate quantification may be hampered by the co-recognition of structurally related metabolites by the used antibodies. Therefore, it is crucial to assess their cross-reactivity (CR) to avoid misinterpretation of the results. Several immunoassays for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) are commercially available. Recently, novel trichothecene mycotoxins with structures similar to DON, the NX-toxins (NX-2, NX-3 and NX-4), were discovered, which can potentially co-occur with DON in cereals. So far, no data about the CR of those toxins with DON-antibodies are available. The aim of this study was to assess the CRs of NX-toxins and some other DON-related metabolites with DON-antibodies in buffer solutions. Six commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and two previously developed DON-antibodies (Mab#1 and Mab#22) were tested. No CR of NX-metabolites in the ELISA-kits and with Mab#22 was observed, whereas Mab#1 moderately reacted against NX-3 and NX-4 (CR based on a molar basis of 14 and 30%, respectively). Modifications at position C-3 (3-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glucoside) led to moderate or high cross reactivity with Mab#22 and the commercial ELISA-kits, whereas these compounds were not recognised by Mab#1. Similar to NX-metabolites, 15-acetyl-DON interacted only weakly with Mab#22 and the commercial ELISA-kits, but strongly with Mab#1. The results demonstrate the importance of proper antibody characterisation. In case NX-metabolites become more abundant and problematic, the development of specific antibodies targeting these novel metabolites might become necessary.