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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #353206

Research Project: Development and Characterization of Soybean Germplasm, Curation of Stored Accessions, and Regional Evaluations of New Genotypes

Location: Crop Genetics Research

Title: Effect of increased nitrogen application rates and environment on protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals in sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed grown under Mississippi Delta conditions

Author
item Bellaloui, Nacer
item Abbas, Hamed
item EBELHAR, WAYNE - Mississippi State University
item Mengistu, Alemu
item MULVANEY, MICHAEL - University Of Florida
item ACCINELLI, CESARE - University Of Bologna, Italy
item SHIER, THOMAS - University Of Minnesota

Submitted to: Food and Nutrition Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/27/2018
Publication Date: 9/30/2018
Citation: Bellaloui, N., Abbas, H.K., Ebelhar, W.M., Mengistu, A., Mulvaney, M.J., Accinelli, C., Shier, T.W. 2018. Effect of increased nitrogen application rates and environment on protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals in sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed grown under Mississippi Delta conditions. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 9:1112-1135. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2018.99081.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2018.99081

Interpretive Summary: Sesame has been grown for thousands of years in Africa and Asia, but it is a relatively new crop in the USA. Its production has increased in the last ten years in Mississippi, Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Sesame tolerates drought, poor soil, disease, and pests, especially insects. In spite of its desirable seed nutritional qualities (high oil content, high oleic acid, and high antioxidants), limited research has been conducted, particularly on the effects of increased amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on sesame seed quality, including seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrition. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on sesame seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrition. The results of a two-year field study using four sesame varieties showed that increasing nitrogen application rates resulted in higher protein and oleic acid contents in two varieties in 2014, and in all varieties in 2015. Increased protein and oleic acid were accompanied by lower total oil and linoleic acid. Thus, increased nitrogen fertilizer application resulted in higher seed protein, oleic acid, and some mineral nutrients, but lower oil and linoleic acid. However, the effects of mineral nutrition depended on variety and environmental conditions. Because higher protein and oleic acid are desirable traits for sesame seed nutritional value and oil stability, regional breeders should consider selecting sesame varieties for efficient fertilizer response.

Technical Abstract: Information on the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates on sesame seed composition and nutrition is scarce. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on sesame seed yield, protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrition. A two-year (2014, 2015) field experiment was conducted. Nitrogen fertilizer (urea ammonium nitrate) solution (UAN, 32% N) was applied by side dressing to four sesame varieties (S-34, S-35, S-38, S-39) from Sesaco Corporation at rates of 44.7, 67.2, 89.6 and 112.0 kg ha-1, and the rate at 44.7 kg ha-1 was considered control as is traditionally recommended in the region. The remaining nitrogen was applied at the initial reproductive stage. Increasing nitrogen application rates resulted in higher protein and oleic acid contents in two varieties in 2014, and in all varieties in 2015. Increased protein and oleic acid was accompanied by lower total oil and linoleic acid. Increased nitrogen application also resulted in higher seed N, S, B, Cu, Fe, and Zn in 2014 in S-34 and S-35, but either a decline or no clear change was observed in seed levels of these nutrients in S-38 and S-39. In 2015, increased nitrogen application resulted in significantly higher seed N in all varieties, higher S in S-39; B in S-38, and S-39; Cu in S-34, S-35, and S-38; Fe in S-35; Zn in S-35, and S-39; and K in S-38 and S-39. However, seed K decreased significantly in S-34 and S-35. A significant positive correlation was observed between nitrogen application rate and yield, and with seed levels of protein, oleic, acid, N, B, Cu, Fe, and Zn. A significant negative correlation was observed between nitrogen application rate and seed oil and linoleic acid. Thus, increased nitrogen fertilizer application resulted in higher seed protein, oleic acid and some mineral nutrients, but lower oil and linoleic acid. However, this effect depended on variety and environmental conditions. Because higher protein and oleic acid are desirable traits for sesame seed nutritional value and oil stability, regional breeders should select sesame varieties for efficient fertilizer response.