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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Boston, Massachusetts » Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #352575

Research Project: Nutrients, Aging, and Musculoskeletal Function

Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

Title: Multiple vitamin K forms exist in dairy foods

Author
item Fu, Xueyan - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Harshman, Stephanie - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Shen, Xiaohua - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University
item Haytowitz, David
item Karl, James - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Wolfe, Benjamin - Tufts University
item Booth, Sarah - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University

Submitted to: Current Developments in Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/31/2017
Publication Date: 6/1/2017
Citation: Fu, X., Harshman, S.G., Shen, X., Haytowitz, D.B., Karl, J.P., Wolfe, B.E., Booth, S.L. 2017. Multiple vitamin K forms exist in dairy foods. Current Developments in Nutrition. 1(6):e000638. https://doi.org/10.3945/cdn.117.000638.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/cdn.117.000638

Interpretive Summary: The plant-based form of vitamin K, known as phylloquinone, has been well quantified in the U.S. diet. Menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, are another class of vitamin K compounds that differ from phylloquinone in the length and saturation of their side chain, but they have not been well characterized in foods. The objectives of this study were to: 1) quantify phylloquinone and the different forms of menaquinones in milk, yogurt, Greek yogurt, creams, and cheeses and 2) compare the menaquinone contents of full-fat, reduced-fat, and nonfat dairy products. Phylloquinone and menaquinone concentrations in dairy products were quantified by mass spectrometry technology. Full-fat dairy products contained appreciable amounts of menaquinones. We also measured modest amounts of phylloquinone in these products. Soft cheese, blue cheese, semi-soft cheese, and hard cheese ranged from 280 to 500 micrograms of total vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones) per 100 grams of cheese. In contrast, nonfermented cheeses, such as processed cheese, contained less than 100 micrograms of total vitamin K per 100 grams of cheese. Reduced-fat or fat-free dairy products contained ~5-22% of the vitamin K found in full-fat equivalents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of menaquinone contents of U.S. dairy products. Our findings indicate that the amount of vitamin K contents in dairy products is high and proportional to the fat content of the product.

Technical Abstract: Background: The plant-based form of vitamin K (phylloquinone, vitamin K-1) has been well quantified in the US diet. Menaquinones (vitamin K-2) are another class of vitamin K compounds that differ from phylloquinone in the length and saturation of their side chain, but they have not been well characterized in foods. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify phylloquinone and the different forms of menaquinones [menaquinone (MK) 4-MK13] in milk, yogurt, Greek yogurt, creams, and cheeses and 2) compare the menaquinone contents of full-fat, reduced-fat, and nonfat dairy products. Methods: All dairy samples were either obtained from the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program or purchased from retail outlets. Phylloquinone and menaquinone concentrations in these dairy products were quantified by mass spectrometry technology. Results: Full-fat dairy products contained appreciable amounts of menaquinones, primarily in the forms of MK9, MK10, and MK11. We also measured modest amounts of phylloquinone, MK4, MK8, and MK12 in these products. In contrast, there was little MK5-7 or MK13 detected in the majority of dairy products. The total vitamin K contents of soft cheese, blue cheese, semi-soft cheese, and hard cheese were (means +/- SEMs): 506 +/- 63, 440 +/- 41, 289 +/- 38, and 282 +/- 5.0 microgram/100 g, respectively. Nonfermented cheeses, such as processed cheese, contained lower amounts of vitamin K (98 +/- 11 microgram/100 g). Reduced-fat or fat-free dairy products contained ~5-22% of the vitamin K found in full-fat equivalents. For example, total vitamin K contents of full-fat milk (4% fat), 2%-fat milk, 1%-fat milk, and nonfat milk were 38.1 +/- 8.6, 19.4 +/- 7.7, 12.9 +/- 2.0, and 7.7 +/- 2.9 microgram/100 g, respectively. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of menaquinone contents of US dairy products. Findings indicate that the amount of vitamin K contents in dairy products is high and proportional to the fat content of the product.