Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases ResearchTitle: Immunohistochemical Insights in Vector-Borne Disease Research Author
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2018
Publication Date: 4/24/2018
Citation: Drolet, B.S., Mills, M. 2018. Immunohistochemical Insights in Vector-Borne Disease Research. Meeting Abstract. 04/24/2018; San Diego, CA. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Culicoides sonorensis biting midges transmit several emerging and re-emerging arboviruses of domestic and wild ruminants, including bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). We have utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine virus-vector-host interactions in several of these disease systems to better understand vector competence, vector-borne transmission, infection dynamics, and pathogenesis. Conducting a time-course VSV infection in midges, we demonstrated infection, dissemination, and tissue tropism, as well as infection and escape from the critical transmission barriers, namely the midgut and salivary glands. Our results provided the first evidence that this insect species was a competent biological vector of VSV. Most recently we characterized EHDV infection and dissemination within the midge, providing the first look inside the vector to determine the timeline for virus infection and escape from the transmission barriers, thus, determining the transmission window for this known EHDV vector. Although their chitinous exoskeletons and minute size (2mm) make IHC in Culicoides midges quite challenging, it is a powerful tool in the pursuit of understanding vector-borne viral transmission, and often provides critical information for disease epidemiology where other methods prove inadequate.