|RASHED, ARASH - UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO|
|FENG, XUE - UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO|
|PRAGER, SEAN - UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN|
|KNODEL, JANET - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY|
|KARASEV, ALEXANDER - UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO|
|EIGENBRODE, SANFORD - UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO|
Submitted to: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/3/2018
Publication Date: 7/1/2018
Citation: Rashed, A., Feng, X., Prager, S., Porter, L.D., Knodel, J., Karasev, A., Eigenbrode, S.D. 2018. Vector-borne viruses of pulse crops, with a particular emphasis on North American cropping systems. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 11(4):205-227. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/say014.
Interpretive Summary: Virus infections in pulses (chickpea, lentil, dry pea, broad bean, common bean) are a major concern for pulse production regions in the US and Canada. Due to their nutritional value and ability to provide nitrogen to the soil, production of pulses has been increasing markedly in the USA, notably in the dryland areas of the Northern Plains and the Pacific Northwest USA (NP&PNW). Insects cause damage by feeding on pulse crops and also by transmitting different viruses that cause diseases within the plant. There are several pulse viruses that are prevalent and periodically quite injurious to pulse crops in the NP&PNW and elsewhere in North America. Other viruses are currently of minor concern with limited impact. Some viruses are not currently found in North America but are serious constraints for pulses in other parts of the world, and have the potential to be introduced into the USA with significant economic consequences. Managing plant viruses and the diseases they cause requires an ability to identify the virus, knowledge of insects transmitting the virus, and understanding insect biology and environmental conditions that effect virus transmission. This review provides an overview of insect transmitted viruses in pulses and describes their physical appearance, how they are transmitted, weeds and crops that are hosts to viruses, disease symptoms, interactions between insects, virus, and plants, and current management options. We conclude with an overview of the principles of managing insect-transmitted viruses and an outline of areas requiring further research to improve management of viruses in pulses.
Technical Abstract: Pulse crop production in the USA has increased dramatically over the past decade, in part due to their nutritional value and ability to form symbiotic associations with rhizobacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen. There are several insect-transmitted viruses that are prevalent and periodically quite injurious to pulse crops in the USA and Canada. Others are currently of minor concern, occurring over limited areas or sporadically. Still others are serious constraints for pulses elsewhere in the world and are not currently known in North America, but have the potential to be introduced with significant economic consequences. Managing plant viruses and the diseases they cause requires effective diagnostics, knowledge of virus vectors, virus transmission biology and ecology. There is no compendium to inform producers and researchers about viruses currently and potentially affecting pulses in North America. Here we provide an overview of insect transmitted viruses and their biology, followed by descriptions of the structure, infection biology, host ranges, symptoms, and current management options including host resistance and vector control for 33 viruses affecting or potentially affecting pulses in the USA and Canada. These are organized based on their transmission biology into persistently transmitted (families Geminiviridae, Luteoviridae and Nanoviridae), semi-persistently transmitted (Secoviridae), and non-persistently transmitted (Betaflexiviridae, Bromoviridae and Potyviridae) viruses. We conclude with an overview of the principles of managing insect-transmitted viruses and an outline of areas requiring further research to improve management of viruses in pulses.