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Research Project: Plant and Microbial Genetic Resource Preservation and Quality Assessment

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Title: Crop improvement and conservation through tissue culture techniques

Author
item Jenderek, Maria

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/29/2018
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: N/A

Technical Abstract: Crop improvement through classic breeding and/or genetic engineering methods is possible in the majority of cultivated crops. However, gene manipulations, chromosome duplication, protoplast fusion, bioassays, interspecific cross recovery involve tissue culture techniques. For vegetatively propagated crops, those techniques are often the only practical way to achieve rapid mass propagation, manipulate ploidy level, select desired somaclonal variants and generate virus-free material. An example of using tissue culture in crop improvement is the application of meristem culture to derive virus-free planting material in garlic (Allium sativum) and potato (Solanum tubersosum). Various forms of tissue culture are essential in preservation of clonally propagated plant species. For instance, shoot culture of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and fruit plants (e.g., Prunus, Ribes, Rubus, Vaccinium), as well as storage of in vitro potato mini-tubers support a midterm preservation for two to five years without the culture transfer. The culture methods used in midterm preservation depend on the species and require different medium ingredients, growing environment and vessel types. In long-term preservation, meristem shoot tips are the main propagules used in processing of clonally propagated non-woody plant species. The culture quality, duration of cultivation, medium composition as well as the culture size used for processing and the culture recovery method impact the post liquid nitrogen plant rejuvenation. Tissue culture and the culture techniques are essential for plant improvement and preservation, and therefore, development of novel techniques and/or their simplification is essential to guaranty future success.