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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #350206

Title: Evaluation of peanut cultivars, wild species, and experimental lines for drought and heat tolerance

item ZWE, ZOONG - Clemson University
item NARAYANAN, SRUTHI - Clemson University
item Tallury, Shyamalrau - Shyam

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/23/2018
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Peanut (Arachis hypogea) is an important crop grown worldwide for its nutritional value and economic significance. Although the demand for peanuts remains high, increasing drought episodes, combined with high temperatures, threaten the supply. Peanut plants are most sensitive to drought and heat stresses during flowering, which drastically decreases yield due to poor pollen performance and reduced pod-set. Currently, there is no released cultivar tolerant to both stresses in the US peanut belt. This study was conducted to evaluate released varieties of Virginia and Runner type peanuts, wild species and experimental lines derived from wild species for both drought and heat tolerance during flowering based on pollen viability, pollen germination and pod number. Plants were grown in 5-gallon pots filled with sterilized field soil at optimum conditions (28/22°C daytime maximum/nighttime minimum + well-watered) in a greenhouse until 9 days after flowering. Gypsum and a controlled-release N-P-K fertilizer were added before sowing. Thereafter, plants were exposed to drought stress (28/22°C + water-withheld), heat stress (38/28°C + well-watered) or optimum conditions for 7 days. Pollen viability, pollen germination and pod number were measured to assess pollen performance for each genotype. The experimental lines Seed Increase Nursery (SIN) SIN 83, SIN 118, SIN 121 and F7 genaration Nursery (F7N) F7N 77 had similar inherent potential for pollen performance as the wild peanuts and released cultivars under optimum water and temperature conditions. SIN 83 and F7N 1 had high while Gregory had low pod numbers under both drought and heat stresses unlike the other genotypes. SIN 83 also had high while SIN 121 had low pollen germination and viability % under both stresses unlike the other genotypes. Thus, the experimental line SIN 83 will serve as a good genetic material for developing drought and heat tolerant peanut varieties for the US peanut belt.