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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Healthy Processed Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #349997

Research Project: Adding Value to Plant-Based Waste Materials through Development of Novel, Healthy Ingredients and Functional Foods

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: Efficient production of fungal chitosan utilizing an advanced freeze-thawing method; quality and activity studies

item BAN, ZHAOJUN - Agricultural Research Organization Of Israel
item HOREV, BATIA - Agricultural Research Organization Of Israel
item RUTENBERG, ROI - Agricultural Research Organization Of Israel
item DANAY, OFER - Migal Galilee Research Institute
item Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina
item McHugh, Tara
item RODOV, VICTOR - Agricultural Research Organization Of Israel
item POVERENOV, ELENA - Agricultural Research Organization Of Israel

Submitted to: Food Hydrocolloids
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/7/2018
Publication Date: 3/9/2018
Citation: Ban, Z., Horev, B., Rutenberg, R., Danay, O., Bilbao-Sainz, C., McHugh, T.H., Rodov, V., Poverenov, E. 2018. Efficient production of fungal chitosan utilizing an advanced freeze-thawing method; quality and activity studies. Food Hydrocolloids. 81:380-388.

Interpretive Summary: Currently, most of the commercial chitosan is derived from crustaceans, shrimps and crabs. However, such animal-sourced chitosan is unacceptable for vegetarians and people who do not consume crustaceans because of religious, medicinal or other restrictions. The cell wall of mushrooms can be considered an alternative non-animal source for chitosan production. Moreover, instead of high-quality mushrooms, chitosan production may utilize mushroom industry waste. However, in order to increase fungal chitosan application, new effective and feasible approaches for its production are needed. In this study, fungal chitosan was produced adding a freeze-thawing cycle step to the classical alkali deacetylation protocol. The new protocol resulted in up to 150% increase in the received chitosan yield and in up to 140% increase in its deacetylation degree (DD) as compared to the chitosan produced by classical protocol. The received fungal chitosan demonstrated antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, E. coli bacterium and S. cerevisiae yeast and satisfactory physical parameters.

Technical Abstract: The presented study describes an efficient method for the production of high quality chitosan originating from a non-animal source. Fungal chitosan was produced from brown Agaricus bisporus, white Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms by utilizing a classic alkali deacetylation protocol (PI), as well as a new protocol (PII) that involves a freeze-thawing cycle. PII resulted in an increase of up to 150 % in the obtained chitosan’s yield and a more efficient deacetylation process (up to 140 % decrease in acetylated units) compared to chitosan produced by the classic PI. Gel permeation chromatography, FTIR, NMR, UV, elemental analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis were all used to characterize the prepared fungal chitosan samples and examine their physical properties (viscosity, color, hydrophobicity, and solubility). Microbiological studies have revealed the yielded chitosan samples have demonstrated biological activity against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. This study therefore presents the preparation of high quality non-animal sourced chitosan, which is extremely desired in the food industry. In addition, the presented freeze-thaw cycle technique can also be used to yield and modify other edible hydrocolloids.