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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Support the Global Control and Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

Location: Foreign Animal Disease Research

Title: The need for improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease

Author
item De Los Santos, Teresa
item Diaz-san Segundo, Fayna - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Rodriguez, Luis

Submitted to: Current Opinion in Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2018
Publication Date: 3/12/2018
Citation: De Los Santos, T.B., Diaz-San Segundo, F., Rodriguez, L.L. 2018. The need for improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease. Current Opinion in Virology. 29:16-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2018.02.005.

Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be the viral disease posing the greatest economical threat to agriculture worldwide. FMD occurs continuously in large areas of the world, particularly those facing the greatest demand for animal protein for their growing population. Countries resort to physical and trade barriers, yet incursions intro previously FMD-free countries occur and are often controlled by mass slaughter of susceptible animals. Vaccines, have been available for over 70 years and have played a key role in disease control and eradication in certain areas or the world. However, current vaccines have important limitations, sucb as requiring multime immunizations every year and being effective only against one of very few of the circulating viruses. Here we review the current knowledge on FMD vaccines and provide an outlook of emerging technologies as possible solutions for better control and ultimately eradication of such an important agricultural disease.

Technical Abstract: Despite the availability of vaccines for almost a century, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be the viral disease posing the greatest economical threat to agriculture. It’s causative agent, FMD virus (FMDV), discovered in the late 1800’s, remains endemic in large areas of the world, particularly those facing the greatest demand for animal protein for their growing population. An unusually fast replication rate, extreme transmissibility, broad multi-species tropism and antigenic diversity make FMDV difficult to control. Countries resort to physical and trade barriers, yet incursions intro previously FMD-free countries occur and are often controlled by mass slaughter of susceptible animals. An inactivated whole virus vaccine, available for over 70 years, has played a key role in disease control and eradication in certain areas or the world. However, this vaccine technology has important limitations, including short duration of immunity, narrow antigenic coverage and inability to prevent infection in exposed vaccinated animals. FMD has had a resurgence in the last decade mostly caused by pandemic strains likely associated to rapidly evolving environmental changes, population growth, globalization and increasing political instability. There is increasing demand for improved countermeasures to better respond to current and future FMD challenges. Here we review the current knowledge on FMD vaccines and provide an outlook of emerging technologies as possible solutions for better control and ultimately eradication of such an important agricultural disease.