|Novak, Jeffrey - Jeff|
|Johnson, Mark - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)|
Submitted to: Biochar from Biomass and Waste
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/30/2018
Publication Date: 11/9/2018
Citation: Novak, J.M., Johnson, M.G. 2018. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of low temperature (350 degrees celsius) lignocellulosic- and manure-based designer biochars and their use as soil amendments. In: Ok, Y.S., Tsang, D.C., Bolan, N. and Novak, J.M. editors. Biochar from Biomass and Waste. 1st edition, New York, Academic Press. p. 37-58.
Interpretive Summary: Biochar has gain world attention as a potential amendment in the agronomic and environmental sectors. Biochars are produced from a variety of organic feedstocks using a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures. Pyrolysis temperature has an important role in the conversion of organic feedstocks into biochar. There is flexibility in the production process to design biochars with specific characteristics by manipulating variables such as feedstock selection, blends, activating agents, and pyrolysis temperatures. Thus, these variables are important to consider since they determine the biochars chemical makeup, which ultimately controls its interaction with heavy metals, modification of soil pH, and deposition of nutrients into soil. In this chapter, we describe how the elemental and spectroscopic properties of low temperature produced biochars are important to understand to more effectively improve soil quality and sequester pollutants.
Technical Abstract: Biochar has multifunctional properties capable of improving fertility of degraded soils, as a sorbent for organic pollutants, and heavy metals sequestration in mine spoils. Biochars are produced using lignocellulosic-, and manure-based feedstocks that are pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 300 to 800 degrees Celsius (C). Thus, the physiochemical characteristics of biochars are dependent on the parent feedstock, blends, and pyrolysis temperature preferences. Manure-based biochars commonly have a calcareous pH, and contain higher concentrations of elements than lignocellulosic-based biochars. Biochar produced at low pyrolysis temperatures (< 350 degrees C) contain an assortment of organic structures with oxygen and hydrogen containing functional groups. Results from this review chapter will detail how feedstock selection, blends, and low temperature (350 degrees C) pyrolysis will impact biochars properties. Using this technology should results in more effective use of low temperature produced biochar as a soil amendment.