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ARS Home » Plains Area » Manhattan, Kansas » Center for Grain and Animal Health Research » ABADRU » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #349280

Research Project: Ecology and Control of Insect Vectors

Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research

Title: Mosquito-borne diseases in the livestock industry

Author
item PAGES MARTINEZ, NONITO - Cirad, France
item Cohnstaedt, Lee

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2018
Publication Date: 9/10/2018
Citation: Pages, N., Cohnstaedt, L.W. 2018. Mosquito-borne diseases in the livestock industry. In: Garros, C., Bouyer, J., Takken, W. and Smallegange, R.C., editors. Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry. Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases. 5th Edition. Wageningen Academic Publishers. Pages: 195-219. https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-863-6_8.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-863-6_8

Interpretive Summary: Mosquitoes are two winged insects that have been on this earth for 200-245 million years. They probably co-evolved with terrestrial vertebrates along the Jurassic period to date. Mosquitoes are able to physically harm animals as well transmit pathogens which may result in disease. Natural transmission of a pathogen by mosquitoes requires a mosquito bite and feed on an infected animal, the pathogen then multiplies within the mosquito until being released into the mosquito saliva while re-feeding into a new non-infected susceptible host. Mosquito-borne viruses are amongst the most important endemic and emerging pathogen diseases in a global context affecting livestock, humans and other vertebrates. The most important viruses transmitted to vertebrates belong to Bunyaviridae, Faviviridae and Togaviridae families. Among them, a selected group of mosquito-transmitted viral diseases is reviewed: Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae), Japanese encephalitis and West Nile fever (Flaviviridae), and Equine encephalitis (Togaviridae). These are all emerging or re-emerging diseases in the 21st century of utmost importance for Veterinary and Public Health, due to their zoonotic potential.

Technical Abstract: Mosquitoes are insects that belong to the order Diptera (two-winged) and family Culicidae. The first mosquito ancestors probably appeared during the Triassic period, 200-245 million years ago. Since then, the Culicidae probably co-evolved with terrestrial vertebrates along the Jurassic period to date. Mosquitoes are able to reduce the livestock fitness as well without pathogen transmission, although mosquitoes have the potential to transmit a large variety of pathogens to livestock as well. Natural transmission of a pathogen by mosquitoes requires that a mosquito bites and feeds on an infected (and amplifying) host, the pathogen then multiplies within the mosquito until being released into the mosquito saliva while re-feeding into a new non-infected susceptible host. Mosquito-borne viruses are amongst the most important endemic and emerging pathogen diseases in a global context affecting livestock, humans and other vertebrates. The most important viruses transmitted to vertebrates belong to Bunyaviridae, Faviviridae and Togaviridae families. Among them, a selected group of mosquito-transmitted viral diseases is reviewed: Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae), Japanese encephalitis and West Nile fever (Flaviviridae), and Equine encephalitis (Togaviridae). These are all emerging or re-emerging diseases in the 21st century of utmost importance for Veterinary and Public Health, due to their zoonotic potential.