|ZHOU, XIN-GEN - Texas Agrilife|
|DOU, FUGEN - Texas Agrilife|
|WATKINS, KENTON - University Of Arkansas|
|BAGAVATHIANNAN, MUTHU - Texas Agrilife|
|WAY, MICHAEL - Texas Agrilife|
|HUANG, BIHU - University Of Arkansas At Pine Bluff|
|NTAMATUNGIRO, SIXTE - University Of Arkansas At Pine Bluff|
|SHADE, JESSICA - The Organic Center|
|ABUGHO, SETH - Texas Agrilife|
Submitted to: Rice Technical Working Group Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/19/2018
Publication Date: 10/16/2018
Citation: Zhou, X., McClung, A.M., Dou, F., Watkins, K.B., Bagavathiannan, M., Way, M.O., Huang, B., Ntamatungiro, S., Shade, J., Abugho, S. 2018. Organic rice IPM research update in the United States. Proceedings of 37th Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, February 19-22, 2018, Long Beach, California. p 92. Electronic Publication.
Technical Abstract: U.S. organic rice production has steadily increased over the past decade, with a majority of the acreage being grown in the southern region. Because of the warm and humid environments and the long growing season in the region, weed, disease and insect pests are among the primary factors limiting organic rice production. This 3-year USDA NIFA OREI-funded multistate research project addresses these issues and aims at developing viable management strategies that minimize the damage caused by these pests. This presentation updates the research of the first two years of this project. Field trials were conducted under organic management in Texas and Arkansas in 2016 and 2017 to understand the impacts of cover crop and soil amendment, seed treatment, seeding rate, and rice cultivar on disease, weed and insect pests, grain yield, and economic benefits. The winter cover crops annual ryegrass, cereal rye, crimson clover, and crimson clover mixed with oats produced sufficient aboveground biomass, resulting in a reduction in weeds and an improvement in the supply of N and other nutrients. Soil amendment with mustard seed meals reduced the loss of stand caused by a seedling disease complex. Annual ryegrass and crimson clover reduced both narrow brown leaf spot and brown spot diseases. Gibberellic acid seed treatment increased seedling height. Seed treatment with the biocontrol agents Sonata (Bacillus pumilus), Integral (B. subtilis) and BioEnsure (fungal endophytes) resulted in a significant improvement in stand establishment. BioEnsure seed treatment also improved whole and total milling yields. XL753, XL723, Rondo, Jasmine 85 and Tesanai 2 were among the best cultivars showing good stand, aggressive growth, weed and disease suppression, and high yield potential. No significant differences in the rice water weevil populations were observed among cultivars. Seeding at 150% of recommended rate for conventional systems improved stand establishment and weed suppression. The economic optimum seeding rate for Presidio and XL753 was 80 and 47 kg/ha, respectively. Winter cover crops can suppress weeds and diseases and provide N and other nutrients that improve organic rice production. Selection of resistant or tolerant rice cultivars such as XL753, Jasmine 85 and Tesanai 2 is the key to effective management of these pests. Increasing seeding rate and seed treatment with gibberellic acid and biocontrol agents can ensure adequate stands for weed suppression and yield potential. Through a variety of communication techniques, the project has reached large national and global audiences, with most located in Arkansas, California, Missouri, and Texas.