|Meydani, Mohsen - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|Azzi, Angelo - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/4/2016
Publication Date: 5/2/2017
Citation: Meydani, M., Azzi, A. 2017. Dietary antioxidants and bioflavonoids in atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. In: Kussman, M., Stover, P.J., editors. Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease: Towards A Systems-Level Understanding of Gene-Diet Interactions. 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 125-142.
Technical Abstract: Dietary antioxidants are defined in Dietary Reference Intakes: the Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements  as "substances in foods that significantly decrease the adverse effects of reactive species, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, on normal physiological function in humans." However, the fact that antioxidants can be pro-oxidants under different conditions  makes the definition of an antioxidant, even when in vitro, very difficult. The next complication results form the notion that their effects in vivo can be due to any number of events and are not necessarily due to their antioxidant nature . Furthermore, food antioxidants have different chemical natures and different mechanisms of action both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of an antioxidant, especially in vivo, is determined by the type of radicals to be scavenged, their location, and their accessibility by the antioxidant. Consequently, the above Guide  concludes that "the nutritional recommendations that will be presented in the second report for some of these dietary components may not be determined by or related to their possible action as antioxidants."