|Martins, Isabela - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|Macedo, Gabriela - Universidade De Campinas (UNICAMP)|
|Macedo, Juliana - Universidade De Campinas (UNICAMP)|
|Roberto, Bruna - Universidade De Campinas (UNICAMP)|
|Chen, Qianru - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|Blumberg, Jeffrey - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|Chen, Chung-yen - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Journal of Functional Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/8/2016
Publication Date: 12/19/2016
Citation: Martins, I.M., Macedo, G.A., Macedo, J.A., Roberto, B., Chen, Q., Blumberg, J.B., Chen, C. 2016. Tannase enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of grape pomace in Caco-2 cells treated with IL-1beta. Journal of Functional Foods. 29:69-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2016.12.011.
Interpretive Summary: Food residues derived from the production of processed foods, e.g. wines, orange and grape juices, vegetable oils, dairy, and cereals, are generally underutilized. Using these residues for the extraction and production of value-added products in biotechnological applications, e.g. enzymes, proteins, organic acids, and bioactive compounds, has been recognized among scientific communities and agrofood industries. Grape pomace produced during wine and grape juice production contains fiber and phenolic compounds with health promotion and disease prevention properties. In this cell culture experiment, we tested whether compounds in grape pomace treated with the fungal enzyme tannase that breaks down tannins would be more potent in diminishing inflammatory oxidative stress and inflammation in cultured colonic cells than the untreated grape pomace. We found that tannase treatment cleaved tannins to smaller compounds in grape pomace, an action that may enhance the absorption and health benefits of these ingredients. We also found that grape pomace and enzyme-treated grape pomace reduced the inflammatory responses in the cultured cells, and tannase treatment augmented these effects. Our results support the potential of grape pomace and enzyme-treated grape pomace for protection against free radical-induced damages and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and inform development of agroindustrial residues rich in bioactive compounds as functional ingredients.
Technical Abstract: Grape pomace (GP) is rich in polymeric polyphenolics and glycosides which have lower bioefficacy than monomeric and aglycone counterparts. The aim of this study was to determine whether tannin acyl hydrolase [tannase (TNS)] can improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of GP in Caco-2 cells treated with IL-1beta. TNS increased quercetin content by 45% and decreased quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by 71% as compared to untreated GP. Further, TNS increased total phenols and DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP values by 39, 57, 215, and 12%, respectively. However, GP and GPTNS at 100 and 200 micrograms/mL (dry extract wt/v) displayed comparable efficacy in the reduction of ROS in Caco-2 cells. After 24 h pre-treatment, GPTNS (200 micrograms/mL) decreased IL-1beta-induced PGE2 and IL-8 secretion by 107 and 83% respectively, and down-regulated NF-kB activation by 63%. Thus, TNS appears to enhance antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of GP polyphenolics and suggests their use as a value-added agroindustrial residue.