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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Corvallis, Oregon » National Clonal Germplasm Repository » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #348197

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository

Title: Species for medicinal and social use with an emphasis on Theobroma cacao L. (cacao), Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco), Actaea racemosa L. (black cohosh), and Humulus lupulus L. (hops)

Author
item MCCOY, JOE-ANN - North Carolina Arboretum
item YOUNG, JOHANNA - North Carolina Arboretum
item NIFONG, JESSICA - North Carolina State University
item Hummer, Kim
item Denoma, Jeanine
item AVENDANO-ARRAZATE, CARLOS - Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Forestales Y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)
item Greene, Stephanie
item KANTAR, MICHAEL - University Of Hawaii

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2018
Publication Date: 3/15/2019
Citation: Mccoy, J., Young, J.H., Nifong, J.M., Hummer, K.E., De Noma, J.S., Avendano-Arrazate, C.H., Greene, S.L., Kantar, M.B. 2019. Species for medicinal and social use with an emphasis on Theobroma cacao L. (cacao), Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco), Actaea racemosa L. (black cohosh), and Humulus lupulus L. (hops). In: Greene S., Williams K., Khoury C., Kantar M., Marek L., editors. North American Crop Wild Relatives, Volume 2. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 645-692. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97121-6_19.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97121-6_19

Interpretive Summary: The versatile hop plant is a climbing, vine with a perennial root. There are three wild species related to the cultivated hop plants: one native to Japan, China, and Europe. The European hop is the species of primary economic importance from which most hop cultivars have been selected. This species has 5 five botanical varieties distributed in Europe, Asia, and North America. Hop cones yield lupulin granules containing several types of compounds, which provide the bitters, flavoring, and antibacterial properties needed for brewing beer. Over the millennia, hops has also been used for medicinal and pharmaceutical products, salad greens, ornamental decorations, fibers, and fodder. In 2014, 132,631 Tonnes of hops, worth about $565 million US, were produced in 33 countries. The top countries producing hops are Germany, Ethiopia, U.S., China, and Czechia. Production of this agricultural crop faces challenges from fungal and viral pathogens, insect pests, and climate. Breeders and researchers seek disease resistance, dwarfing, low chilling, and improved and varied acid and flavor components from crop wild relatives. Conservation of hop plants in public and private genebanks includes growing containerized living plants under protected cultivation structures, tissue culture as backup plants, and seed and pollen stored in freezers. Broader representation of crop wild relatives are being sought through plant collection and genebank preservation to increase diversity of global hops available for research.

Technical Abstract: The versatile hop plant, Humulus L., is a climbing, vine with a perennial root. The genus includes three species, H. japonicus, H. lupulus, and H. yunnanensis. The European hops (H. lupulus) is the species of primary economic importance from which most hop cultivars have been selected. This species has 5 five botanical varieties distributed in Europe, Asia, and North America. Hop cones yield lupulin granules containing a- and ß acids and other compounds, which provide the bitters, flavoring, and bacteriostatic properties needed for brewing beer. Over the millennia, hops has also been used for medicinal and pharmaceutical products, salad greens, ornamental decorations, fibers, and fodder. In 2014, 132,631 MT of hops, worth about $565 million US, were produced in 33 countries. The top countries producing hops are Germany, Ethiopia, U.S., China, and Czechia. Production of this agricultural crop faces challenges from fungal and viral pathogens, insect pests, and climate. Breeders and researchers seek disease resistance, dwarfing, low chilling, and improved and varied acid and flavor components from crop wild relatives. Conservation of hop plants in public and private genebanks includes growing containerized living plants under protected cultivation structures, tissue culture as backup plants, and seed and pollen stored in freezers. Broader representation of crop wild relatives are being sought through plant collection and ex situ preservation to increase diversity of global Humulus species available for research.