|ZURWELLER, BRENDAN - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA|
|XAVIER, ABISHEK - NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY|
|TILLMAN, BARRY - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA|
|PUPPALA, NAVEEN - NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY|
|ROWLAND, DIANE - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA|
Submitted to: Journal of Crop Improvement
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2018
Publication Date: 4/4/2018
Citation: Zurweller, B., Xavier, A., Tillman, B., Mahan, J.R., Payton, P.R., Puppala, N., Rowland, D. 2018. Pod yield performance and stability of peanut genotypes under differing soil water and regional conditions. Journal of Crop Improvement. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2018.1458674
Interpretive Summary: Many yield components and yield, itself, are controlled by not just the genetics of the crop, but also by the interaction of those gene actions with the environment. The contribution of genetics and the environment to traits like yield can be differentiated by examining yield responses across multiple environments. Understanding genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) allows for the possible development of cultivars either for specific or broad ranging environments. Further, in agriculture, an additional component of the environment is the management scheme (M) employed by growers in specific regions or within specific cropping systems. Improving our knowledge of the influence of each component within GxExM paradigm provides new methods to optimize the potential for success in improving crop yield performance. Therefore, to evaluate diverse peanut genotypes for their relative GxExM effects on yield (with an emphasis on irrigation management as the most critical M component), we implemented research at multiple locations in the southeast and southwest U.S. utilizing genotypes from the peanut mini-core collection. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate yield stability of these peanut genotypes across sites varying in regional environmental characteristics and optimal irrigation management. We hypothesized that a range of yield stability values would be present in different sites, thus providing important information for breeding efforts aimed at developing regionally adapted cultivars.
Technical Abstract: Genetic gains of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the United States (U.S.) has increased harvest index, and disease tolerance resulting in improved broad range adaptability (high yield stability) of peanut cultivars to U.S. peanut production regions. Although this strategy has been successful, future yield increases may require peanut cultivars specifically adapted to environmental and management scenarios of a particular production region. A major management factor which varies across the U.S. production region and influences yield stability is irrigation. Therefore, peanut germplasm selection for breeding specifically adapted cultivars depends on knowledge of genotypic pod yield responses to irrigation across contrasting environmental conditions (G x E x M). The objectives of this study were to characterize germplasm by: (i) examining genotypic pod yield response to irrigation within three locations across the southwest and southeastern U.S.; and (ii) estimate the genotypic pod yield stability across these site years, locations and irrigation treatments for determining both specific and broad adaptability. Stable genotypes having broad range adaptability were C76 16, ICGS 76, Chico, TMV 2, and ICGV 86388; while unstable genotypes having specific adaptability were COC 041, Serenut 6T, and Serenut 5R. A genotype by irrigation interaction occurred at the Florida location, consisting of genotypes New Mexico Valencia C (NMVC), COC 041, and Chico responding positively to increasing water application, whereas, FloRunTM 43 ‘107’, C76 16, and FlavorRunner 458 responded negatively. These results demonstrate both broad and specific adaptability of disparate peanut genotypes which could possibly be utilized by breeding programs for cultivar development.