|SINGH, AJAYPAL - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
Submitted to: Food Science and Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/12/2018
Publication Date: 2/10/2019
Citation: Singh, A., Geveke, D.J., Jones, D.R., Tilman, E.D. 2019. Can acceptable quality angel food cakes be made using pasteurized shell eggs? The effects of mixing factors on functional properties of angel food cakes. Food Science and Nutrition. 7: 987-996.
Interpretive Summary: It is safer to bake using pasteurized shell eggs; however, there is a belief that they will not yield an acceptable product, especially angel food cakes. We pasteurized shell eggs using a hot water immersion process (similar to that used by industry) and baked angel food cakes with the pasteurized egg whites (PEW) as well as from unpasteurized raw egg whites (REW) for comparison. Mixing times of 2 to 4 min were sufficient to make good cakes from REW, but longer times of 10 to 12 min were necessary to make acceptable cakes from PEW. Angel food cakes from PEW were 13% firmer and 62% chewier than those from REW, but had similar color, volume, height, springiness and resilience. We conclude that modifying the mixing conditions for PEW results in angel food cakes with acceptable quality, similar to that of cakes made with REW, thus overcoming an objection to using safer pasteurized shell eggs.
Technical Abstract: Due to recent Salmonella outbreaks, the pasteurized shell egg market is rapidly growing. One objection to using pasteurized eggs is the belief that they will produce unacceptable angel food cakes. Eggs were pasteurized using a hot water immersion process (56.7 C for 60 min) similar to that used by industry. Angel food cakes were made from the pasteurized egg white (PEW) as well as from raw egg white (REW) for comparison. Meringues were made using three mixer speed settings (low, medium and high) and three durations for each speed. Functional qualities like egg foaming were evaluated. Angel food cakes were compared in terms of cake volume, texture profile and color. When the optimal processing factors used for REW were applied to PEW, an inferior meringue was formed. However, by increasing the mixing time for PEW by 200% at the highest speed, an acceptable meringue was formed. The best angel food cake prepared from PEW had a volume only 6.8% less than that of the best cake prepared from REW. Texture profile analyses showed that the best angel food cake made from PEW was 13% firmer, 7.4% less springy and 62% chewier than that from REW. Color analyses showed that PEW made a slightly darker colored cake crust than REW; although, there were no significant differences in the crumb color. Modifying the mixing conditions for PEW resulted in angel food cakes with quality similar to that of cakes made with REW, thus overcoming an objection to using safer pasteurized shell eggs.