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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #347912

Research Project: Evaluation of the Chemical and Physical Properties of Low-Value Agricultural Crops and Products to Enhance Their Use and Value

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Fiberboard created using the natural adhesive properties of distillers dried grains with solubles

item Tisserat, Brent
item Hwang, Hong-Sik
item Vaughn, Steven
item Berhow, Mark
item Peterson, Steven - Steve
item JOSHEE, NIRMAL - Fort Valley State University
item VAIDYA, BRAJESH - Fort Valley State University
item Harry O Kuru, Rogers

Submitted to: BioResources
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/16/2018
Publication Date: 2/21/2018
Citation: Tisserat, B., Hwang, H.-S., Vaughn, S.F., Berhow, M.A., Peterson, S.C., Joshee, N., Vaidya, B.N., Harry-O'kuru, R. 2018. Fiberboard created using the natural adhesive properties of distillers dried grains with solubles. BioResources. 13(2):2678-2701.

Interpretive Summary: Almost 80% of wood consumption in developed countries is in the form of industrial or engineered wood products, such as particleboard, plywood, oriented strand board and fiberboard. These products are manufactured by the pressing of wood with synthetic adhesive resins. Many of these synthetic adhesives contain cancerous formaldehyde. As an alternative, biobased adhesives can be employed to address this issue. In this study, distiller’s dried grains and solubles (DDGS) were demonstrated to have adhesive properties and were capable of being used to fabricate fiberboards. DDGS-wood composite properties satisfied Industry strength standards. Over 40 million metric tons of DDGSs are generated by the dry-milling ethanol plants in North America. Commercial use of DDGS as biobased adhesives would benefit both the dry milling and industrial wood manufacturing industries.

Technical Abstract: Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were employed as a bio-based resin/adhesive. DDGS were defatted with hexane, ball ground and screened prior to use. DDGS flour was mixed dry with Paulownia wood (PW) to make composites using the following conditions: temperature of 150-195 oC, PW particle sizes of less than or equal to 75-1700 um, pressure of 2.1 to 5.6 MPa, and using DDGS dosages of 10 to 100%. Molded composites were evaluated for their flexural properties. Composites were examined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Best flexural properties were obtained from composites containing 50% DDGS and 50% PW, using 180-250 um PW particles, pressed at 5.6 MPa, and employing 185oC. Flexural properties of DDGS-PW composites were similar to composites fabricated using soybean flour (Prolia) as the resin/adhesive. Dimensional stability properties (water absorbance and thickness swelling) of DDGS-PW and Prolia-PW composites were similar. DDGS-PW composite properties satisfied several European Committee Industry Standards for fiberboards in terms of flexural properties but were inferior in terms of thickness swelling properties.