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Title: Wild genetic resources of minor oil and rubber crops

item Jenderek, Maria
item CRUZ, VON MARK - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations
item SALYWON, ANDREW - Desert Botanical Garden
item JASSO DE RODRIGUEZ, DIANA - Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro
item GARCIA, RAUL - Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro
item DIERIG, DAVID - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations

Submitted to: North American Crop Wild Relatives
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/2018
Publication Date: 4/2/2019
Citation: Jenderek, M.M., Cruz, V., Salywon, A., Jasso De Rodriguez, D., Garcia, R., Dierig, D. 2019. Wild genetic resources of minor oil and rubber crops. North American Crop Wild Relatives. 2:485-542.

Interpretive Summary: Chapter 26 of the book on Crop Wild Relatives of North America, discusses historic and current uses, domestication, cultivation and improvement efforts of selected industrial crops (jojoba, meadowfoam, lesquerella and guayule) that are defines as “new crops”. Jojoba, meadowfoam and lesquerella seed contain high quantity and quality of oil that has application in production of biodegradable lubricants, biofuels, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, dietetic supplements and their meal might be used in animal feed products; whereas guayule plants contain rubber (equivalent to Havea rubber tree) that is used in industrial production of rubber, resin and bagasse. The seed oil from the oil crops and the bagasse form guayule have biocidal properties. Increased air temperature will affect the crops’ geographical cultivation zones and the habitat of their wild relatives. Preserving wild genetic resources is important for current and future cultivar development.

Technical Abstract: Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneid), lesquerella (Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) originate from semi-arid climate zones of North America; meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth, Limnanthes bakeri J. T. Howell, Limnanthes douglasii R. Br.) is endemic to the western part of California, Oregon and southern Canada and grows around vernal pools and seasonally wet areas. This chapter discusses historic and current uses, domestication efforts, breeding and cultivation challenges, and describes the conservation status of the crops’ genetic resources. Meadowfoam and guayule are already cultivated on a limited industrial scale. Jojoba and lesquerella are not grown commercially in North America but are economically important in countries beyond the Americas and are of particular interest to nations with extensive areas of arid lands. North America is an important source of wild genetic resources for these crops, and further efforts are needed to ensure their conservation.