Location: National Peanut Research LaboratoryTitle: Analysis on technology status and development of peanut harvest mechanization of China and the United States Author
|Chen, Zhongyu - Shenyang Agricultural University|
|Gao, Lianxing - Shenyang Agricultural University|
|Chen, Charles - Auburn University|
|Butts, Christopher - Chris|
Submitted to: Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/29/2017
Publication Date: 4/1/2017
Citation: Chen, Z., Gao, L., Chen, C., Butts, C.L. 2017. Analysis on technology status and development of peanut harvest mechanization of China and the United States. Transactions of the Chinese Agricultural Machinery. 2017(4):1-21.
Interpretive Summary: Peanut is an important crop that provides food and edible oil in the world market. China is the world’s largest producer or peanuts, accounting for approximately 40% of the world production. The United States produce approximately 5% of the world annual peanut production. However, the United States peanut exports amount to 16% of the world’s peanut exports. One of the primary reasons for the United States successful competition on the world market is the high level of mechanization, especially during the harvest process. This paper contrasts the latest equipment for digging and harvesting peanuts in both China and the United States and provides a basis for accelerating the rate of implementation of mechanization in China.
Technical Abstract: Peanut is a very important crop for food and edible oil in the world. China is the world’s largest peanut producer accounting for about 40% of the world’s annual production. Following India, China has the second-largest area of planted to peanut annually. While China, India, and Nigeria produce more peanuts, the United States, Argentina and Brazil all are the very important peanut exporters and respectively accounted for 16 %, 24% and 5% of the world peanut exports in 2016. The United States peanut planted area accounted for about 2.46% of the total land area planted to peanut, but their total peanut production accounted for about 5% of world production and 16% of peanut exports in 2016. One of the main reasons for the United States’ strong position in the export market is the high level of harvest mechanization. Harvesting is a key part peanut production. It accounts for more than 60% of labor required during of the process. While both China and the United States are world major peanut suppliers, the level of Chinese harvest mechanization well below that of the United States, which leads to their competitive advantage. A review of the relevant literature, peanut production practices, development and use of technology, and the primary differences in peanut harvest mechanization in China and the United States are presented. The structure, principles, and operating characteristics of the newest peanut harvest machinery, including the peanut digger/inverter, peanut combine, and two-stage peanut harvesters in China and the United States are introduced and contrasted. The main factors that encouraged the mechanization of the American peanut harvest and the factors restricting mechanization in China are discusses. The discussion provides a basis for accelerating the development and implementation of mechanization for harvesting peanut in China.