|CHRZASTEK, KLAUDIA - Orise Fellow|
|LEE, DONG-HUN - Orise Fellow|
|GHARAINEH, SAAD - Jordan University Of Science & Technology|
Submitted to: Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/20/2018
Publication Date: 2/27/2018
Citation: Chrzastek, K., Lee, D., Gharaineh, S., Zsak, A., Kapczynski, D.R. 2018. Characterization of H9N2 avian influenza viruses from the Middle East demonstrates heterogeneity at amino acid position 226 in the hemagglutinin and potential for transmission to mammals. Virology. 518: 195-2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2018.02.016.
Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza (AI) virus is an economically important disease of commercial poultry that can result in high morbidity, high mortality and restrictive trade barriers that limit poultry export for the country of origin. Although the incidence of highly pathogenic AI viruses is relatively small, some low pathogenic AI viruses routinely circulate in populations of chickens and turkeys throughout the world. It has been demonstrated that low pathogenic AI viruses can mutate to cross species barriers and replicate in mammals. Therefore, the detection and characterization of these low pathogenic AI viruses is critical for identifying emerging strains in poultry with zoonotic potential.
Technical Abstract: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are a valuable tool to monitor changes in viral genomes and determine the genetic heterogeneity of viruses. In this study, NGS was applied to poultry samples from Jordan to detect eleven H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). All of the viruses tested belonged to Middle East A genetic group of G1 lineage. Deep sequencing demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity of glutamine and leucine residues at position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, which increases specifity to either avian or mammalian-type receptors. Moreover, amino acid changes of R207K, H436Y, and M677T in PB1, A515T in PA, V15I, N30D and T215A in M1, L55F in M2, and the C-terminus of PDZ ligand motif EPEV in NS1, which correspond with increased replication and virulence, were identified among the viruses tested. Compared to single gene amplification, application of NGS for surveillance and characterization of H9N2 LPAIV provides a complete genetic profile of emerging isolates and better understanding of the potential of zoonotic transmissions to mammals.