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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Byron, Georgia » Fruit and Tree Nut Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #347102

Research Project: Breeding Stone Fruit Adapted to the Production Environment of the Southeastern United States

Location: Fruit and Tree Nut Research

Title: Rootstock performance in the 2009 NC-140 peach trial across 11 states

Author
item Reighard, G. - Clemson University
item Bridges Jr., W. - Clemson University
item Archbold, D. - University Of Kentucky
item Atucha, A. - University Of Wisconsin
item Autio, W. - University Of Massachusetts
item Beckman, Thomas - Tom
item Black, B. - Utah State University
item Chavez, D. - University Of Georgia
item Coneva, E. - Auburn University
item Day, K. - University Of California
item Kushad, M. - University Of Illinois
item Johnson, R. - University Of California
item Lindstrom, T. - Utah State University
item Lordan, J. - Cornell University - New York
item Minas, I. - University Of Wisconsin
item Ouellette, D. - Clemson University
item Parker, M. - North Carolina State University
item Pokarel, R. - University Of Wisconsin
item Robinson, T. - Cornell University - New York
item Schupp, J. - Pennsylvania State University
item Warmund, M. - University Of Missouri
item Wolfe, D. - University Of Kentucky

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/30/2016
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Regional rootstock tests continue to be the most reliable source of information for critically important performance data for commercial growers and extension personnel. The NC-140 peach rootstock trials have been providing this type of information since 1984. In the most recent installment ‘Redhaven’ peach on 18 different rootstocks were planted at 16 sites in North America in 2009. Rootstocks included plum and plum hybrids, peach, peach-almond hybrids. Lovell was included as a standard for comparison. Results from this study are still preliminary, but past NC-140 peach rootstock trials have shown rootstock productivity usually does not change much in ranking after three years of bearing. However, in this study increasing tree mortality affected performance rankings such that field testing for disease resistance, especially in the southeastern U.S., should be completed first before releasing an untested rootstock commercially. Results for this trial also indicate that Fortuna was potentially incompatible with peach, and Imperial California, Krymsk1, and Replantpac rootstocks were susceptible to bacterial canker at several locations.

Technical Abstract: From 14 to 18 Prunus rootstocks budded with ‘Redhaven’ peach were planted at 16 locations in North America in 2009. Seven-year performance from 12 remaining locations in 11 states showed that significant differences among rootstocks and sites were found for survival, root suckers, growth, bloom date, fruit maturity date, fruit size, cumulative yield, and yield efficiency. Survival was highest for peach seedling rootstocks at all locations. In contrast, survival of non-peach species and hybrid rootstocks was poor to fair in Missouri (winter cold, wet feet conditions) and Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina due to bacterial canker. Krymsk®1, Krymsk®86, Penta, Controller™ 5 and Mirobac (aka Replantpac or Rootpac®R) were the most susceptible to tree death from Pseudomonas syringae canker in the four southeastern states. Overall, Imperial California had the lowest survival followed by Fortuna and Krymsk®1. Rootstock suckering was excessive on Prunus americana seedlings with lesser suckering noted on, Mirobac, Krymsk®1 and Penta. Largest trees were three Prunus x almond hybrids (Viking, Atlas, Brights Hybrid #5) and Guardian®. Fruit size varied with location and crop load (i.e., some rootstocks had few fruit). Atlas produced the largest fruit and Fortuna the smallest fruit across all sites. Cumulative yields were highest in the peach rootstocks such as Guardian®, Lovell and KV010127 and on Atlas. The lowest yields were from plum hybrids and plum species. Cumulative yield efficiency was higher on the non-peach rootstocks, but these rootstocks also produced trees much smaller than the peach and almond hybrid cultivars. The clonal P. persica rootstocks HBOK 10 (Controller™ 8) and HBOK 32 (Controller™ 7) appeared to be the most promising of the size-controlling rootstocks tested. These data suggest there was no demonstrated advantage to increase yield/ha by using clonal interspecific Prunus hybrids for peach production under current cultural practices. However, on higher pH soils in Colorado and Utah, peach seedlings were not the superior rootstocks for production so continuing evaluation of non-peach rootstocks is warranted.