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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Auburn, Alabama » Soil Dynamics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #346865

Research Project: Sustainable Production, Profit, and Environmental Stewardship through Conservation Systems

Location: Soil Dynamics Research

Title: Evaluation of tillage, cover crop, and herbicide effects on weed control, yield, and grade in peanut

Author
item Williams, Jacob - Auburn University
item Price, Andrew
item Mcelroy, Scott - Auburn University
item Guertal, Elizabeth - Auburn University
item Tredaway-ducar, Joyce - Auburn University
item Xi, Steve - Auburn University
item Tubbs, Scott - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/22/2017
Publication Date: 6/22/2017
Citation: Williams, J., Price, A.J., Mcelroy, S., Guertal, E., Tredaway-Ducar, J., Xi, S., Tubbs, S. 2017. Evaluation of tillage, cover crop, and herbicide effects on weed control, yield, and grade in peanut [abstract]. In: Southern Weed Science Society Annual Meeting Abstracts. CDROM.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Peanut production plays a large role in agriculture in the Southeastern United States. Weeds are detrimental to their production because of the competition that they create; weeds will compete with crops for resources such as nutrients and sunlight, among others. Therefore, it is important to reduce weed pressure on peanut to protect yield and grade. With traditional use of herbicides for weed control, the frequency of herbicide resistant weeds has grown. Because of this, alternative integrated methods of weed control must be investigated to maintain crop yield and combat herbicide resistance development. Conservational tillage is a production method that can offer weed suppression through use of high-residue cover crops and needs further investigation due to agronomic and cover crop/herbicide interference concerns. Thus, an experiment was established evaluating tillage, cover crop, and herbicide use intensity conducted as a split-plot design with tillage type as the main plot and herbicide input as the sub plot. The main plot treatments were: 1) conventional tillage including a moldboard plow, 2) conservation tillage winter weedy fallow and spring within-row non-inversion tillage, and 3) conservation tillage using cereal rye as a cover crop and spring within-row non-inversion tillage. Sub plot treatments included: 1) Flumioxazin (3 oz/acre) early PRE, 2) Diclosulam (.45 oz/acre) PRE, and 3) Imazapic (4 fl oz/acre) early POST, 4) Flumioxazin (3 oz/acre) early PRE followed by Imazapic (4 fl oz/acre) early POST, 5) Diclosulam (.45 oz/acre) PRE followed by Imazapic (4 oz/acre) early POST, or 6) nontreated. The treatments were arranged in the design in a factorial arrangement so that all possible treatment combinations were applied to each replication. There were 24 unique plots and three replications, resulting in 72 total plots. Weed control ratings were taken along with yield. Yield from conventional tillage (4113 kg/ha) was shown to be significantly higher than winter fallow (3328 kg/ha), but not significantly higher than conservational tillage (3792 kg/ha). Results also show that a PRE and POST herbicide application are the most effective at improving yield (5103 kg/ha), whereas applying herbicide only at the time of planting or late POST is less effective (2903 kg/ha and 3967 kg/ha, respectively). Weed control was best under the conventional tillage system for crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), and morningglory (Jaquemontia tamnifolia) (95%, 84%, and 87%, respectively). Conservation tillage provided comparable control relative to conventional tillage for sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) (93% and 93% respectively in conservation tillage and 91% and 94% in conventional tillage). In general, integrated weed management systems provided adequate weed control and yield protection in conservation systems as compared to winter fallow.