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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Booneville, Arkansas » Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #346693

Research Project: Sustainable Small Farm and Organic Production Systems for Livestock and Agroforestry

Location: Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center

Title: Effect of ground and pelleted sericea lespedeza whole plant and leaf only on gastrointestinal nematode and coccidial infection in goats

Author
item DYKES, D - Fort Valley State University
item TERRILL, THOMAS - Fort Valley State University
item WHITLEY, NIKI - Fort Valley State University
item SINGH, A - Fort Valley State University
item MOSJIDID, JORGE - Auburn University
item Burke, Joan
item MILLER, JAMES - Louisiana State University

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/1/2019
Publication Date: 2/1/2019
Citation: Dykes, D.S., Terrill, T.H., Whitley, N.L., Singh, A.K., Mosjidid, J.A., Burke, J.M., Miller, J.E. 2019. Effect of ground and pelleted sericea lespedeza whole plant and leaf only on gastrointestinal nematode and coccidial infection in goats. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 9:93-102. https://doi.org/10.17265/2161-6256/2019.02.003.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17265/2161-6256/2019.02.003

Interpretive Summary: Sericea lespedeza (SL) has bioactivity against both Haemonchus contortus or barberpole worm, a highly pathogenic blood-feeding gastrointestinal nematode (GIN), and Eimeria spp. (coccidia), a protozoan parasite that can be particularly devastating to young lambs and goat kids during periods of stress, but there has never been a direct comparison made between activity of whole plant and leaf only SL ground meal or pellets in an animal feeding trial. Scientists from Fort Valley State University, the Agricultural Research Service - Booneville, AR, Auburn University, and Louisiana State University determined that when fed at 50% of the diet, SL leaf meal and whole plant meal pellets were equally effective against GIN egg and Eimeria spp. oocyst production in young kids. However, SL leaf meal was more effective in reducing GIN egg production than whole plant SL meal when fed at 25% of the diet, likely due to higher concentration of condensed tannins in SL leaves compared to stems. This information is important to goat and sheep producers, scientists, veterinarians, and extension specialists with an interest in control of GIN in sheep and goats worldwide.

Technical Abstract: Infection with internal parasites is a primary constraint to sustainable livestock production worldwide. Sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)], a high-tannin, bioactive legume has excellent anti-parasitic bioactivity against both Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeding gastrointestinal nematode (GIN), and Eimeria spp. (coccidia), a protozoan parasite that can be particularly devastating to young animals during periods of stress. This bioactivity has not been compared directly between whole plant and leaf only ground meal or pellets in vivo. In the current investigation, two feeding trials were completed with young goats to determine the anti-parasitic bioactivity of whole plant and leaf only SL fed as a ground meal or in pelleted form. In Trial 1, 29 naturally-infected young goats (Spanish, intact male, 6 months old, n = 9-10 animals per treatment) were fed SL leaf only pellets, SL whole plant pellets, or a commercial goat pellet as 50% of a complete ration in pens for 42 days. In a second trial, 20 naturally-infected kids (Spanish, intact male, 6 months old, n = 10 animals per treatment) were fed either ground SL leaf meal or ground whole plant SL meal as 25% of a complete ration in pens for 42 days. In both studies, fecal samples were collected from individual animals weekly for determination of GIN FEC or Eimeria spp. fecal oocyst counts (FOC). Blood samples were collected weekly to determine packed red blood cell volume (PCV). Adult worms were recovered for counting and identification to species at the end of each study. In Trial 1, both of the pelleted SL rations tended to reduce FEC (P < 0.06) relative to the kids fed the control ration. There was a treatment x time interaction (P < 0.01) for FOC, with lower values on Days 7 to 42 relative to Day 0 for goats on either of pelleted SL diets, while FOC for control animals did not change over time. In Trial 2, both ground whole plant and leaf only SL diets reduced (P < 0.05) FEC of the goats over time, but the effect was faster in the kids on the SL leaf meal ration. Blood PCV and adult worm numbers were not affected by treatment diets in either study. When fed at 50% of the diet, SL leaf meal and whole plant meal pellets were equally effective against GIN egg and Eimeria spp. oocyst production in young kids. However, SL leaf meal was more effective in reducing GIN egg production than whole plant SL meal when fed at 25% of the diet, likely due to higher concentration of condensed tannins in SL leaves compared to stems.