Submitted to: Postharvest Biology and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/24/2019
Publication Date: 1/27/2020
Citation: Abrams, A.E., Kawagoe, J.C., Walse, S.S. 2020. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation to control brown marmorated stinkbug (Hempitera: Pentatomidae). Postharvest Biology and Technology. 163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2019.111111.
Interpretive Summary: Brown marmorated stinkbug (BMSB) is a recent invasive pest that causes considerable damage to certain crops grown in Eastern USA. Moreover, this pest causes urban disturbance in its preparation for overwintering, as it forms large groups in sheltered areas, including houses, garages, and vehicles. The US exports ~ 1 billion USD annually in vehicles to Australia and New Zealand, and these countries require that BMSB is controlled in these shipments. Postharvest fumigation provides a biological safeguard against insect and microbiological pests and, in many scenarios, is the only available tool for government and industry to guarantee pest-free security. This work addresses the need to develop a postharvest fumigation treatment to control this pest in vehicles and shipping containers. The results describe how the fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride, can be used to control BMSB. Moreover, this research provides an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, a critical need for the United States per the international regulatory requirements of the Montreal Protocol.
Technical Abstract: Brown marmorated stinkbug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an insect pest of concern to certain countries that import vehicles and shipping containers from USA. Adult BMSB contained in gas-permeable cages were fumigated with sulfuryl fluoride in laboratory-scale chambers at 10.0 °C, across a range of applied doses and treatment durations. Sulfuryl fluoride exposures, expressed as concentration (C) × time (t) products (Ct), were calculated, exposure-mortality regressions were modeled, and the relative contribution of C versus t toward treatment efficacy was evaluated. The induction of diapause, to simulate overwintering physiology, resulted in an ~ 2-fold increase in tolerance of adults toward sulfuryl fluoride, and this effect is more pronounced as the fumigation duration is shortened from 12 h. Results of this study identify how the applied dose and/or treatment duration can be modulated (i.e., tuned) to ensure adequate toxicological efficacy toward adult BMSB following a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation at air temperature = 10.0 °C. A fumigation schedule for operational implementation in the USA was proposed based on the assimilation of technical results with regulatory, environmental, and logistical considerations.