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Research Project: Defining, Measuring, and Mitigating Attributes that Adversely Impact the Quality and Marketability of Foods

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: Development of ß-carotene-loaded organogel-based nanoemulsion with improved in vitro and in vivo bioaccessibility

Author
item Fan, Yuting - Shenzhen University
item Gao, Luyu - Shenzhen University
item Yi, Jiang - Shenzhen University
item Zhang, Yuzhu
item Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/11/2017
Publication Date: 7/11/2017
Citation: Fan, Y., Gao, L., Yi, J., Zhang, Y., Yokoyama, W.H. 2017. Development of ß-carotene-loaded organogel-based nanoemulsion with improved in vitro and in vivo bioaccessibility. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65:6188-6194.

Interpretive Summary: ß-Carotene is a natural lipophilic carotenoid that is mainly present in vegetables and fruits. Its high provitamin A activity and strong antioxidant activity make beta-carotene an important carotenoid for human nutrition. Inverse correlation was reported in the literature between BC intake and the risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, ß-Carotene has been considered to have biological functions that are beneficial for human health. However, ß-Carotene is insoluble in water and its solubility in edible oils is low. Organogels are liquid edible-oil-entrapped, solid-like, thermo-reversible structured gels. This study reports the generation and evaluation of organogel-based nanoemulsion for delivering ß-Carotene. The results suggested that organogel-based nanoemulsion can be used to load, protect, and deliver lipophilic nutraceuticals in food, cosmetics, and pharmacy industries.

Technical Abstract: ß-Carotene (BC), a naturally occurring lipophilic carotenoid, is beneficial for human health. However, its water solubility and bioavailability are low. In this study, organogel-based nanoemulsion was successfully prepared to improve the loading amount, solubility, and bioavailability of BC. Corn oil was selected as the oil phase for the organogel as a result of the greatest release amount of BC. Tween 20 was optimized as the emulsifier based on the highest extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. The nanoemulsion was a better alternative than the organogel according to both the extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. Cellular uptake of BC was significantly improved through organogel-based nanoemulsion compared to BC suspension. Caveolae-/lipid-raft-mediated route was the main endocytosis pathway. Pharmacokinetic results confirmed that the in vivo bioavailability of BC in nanoemulsion was 11.5-fold higher than that of BC oil. The information obtained suggested that organogel-based nanoemulsion may be an effective encapsulation system for delivery of insoluble and indigestible bioactive compounds.