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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BHNRC) » Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center » Food Surveys Research Group » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #346092

Research Project: What We Eat in America - Dietary Survey: Data Collection, Interpretation, Dissemination, and Methodology

Location: Food Surveys Research Group

Title: Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

Author
item MISHRA, SURUCHI - University Of Maryland
item Goldman, Joseph
item SAHYOUN, NADINE - University Of Maryland
item Moshfegh, Alanna

Submitted to: PLOS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/3/2018
Publication Date: 1/24/2018
Citation: Mishra, S., Goldman, J.D., Sahyoun, N.R., Moshfegh, A.J. 2018. Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. PLoS One. 13(1):e0191368. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191368.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191368

Interpretive Summary: Evenly distributing daily protein intake at meals has been suggested to improve muscle mass among older adults. Using nationwide data on dietary intakes from What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2014, this study examined the association of grip strength with consumption of at least 25g protein across eating occasions throughout the day and with daily protein intake among adults aged 51 years and older. The associations were examined without and with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, health status, smoking status, daily protein intake, and energy intake. Only 33% of men and 19% of women had protein intake of at least 25g protein at 2 or more eating occasions. These individuals also had higher grip strength and mean daily protein intake. Consumption of at least 25g protein at 2 or more eating occasions was not associated with grip strength after adjustment for confounders. However, higher daily protein intake was positively associated with grip strength in women.

Technical Abstract: Distributing daily protein intake evenly across meals (~25–30g/meal) has been suggested to improve muscle mass. The aim of this research is to examine the association between grip strength, total protein intake, and its distribution across day’s meals in older adults. Nationally representative dietary intake data of adults aged 51 years and older (n=4,123) who participated in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2014 were analyzed. Protein intake per day and per eating occasion (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) were determined from a single in-person 24-hr dietary recall collected using the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Combined grip strength was calculated as the sum of the largest hand grip dynamometer reading from each hand, and expressed in kilograms. Grip strength of individuals consuming at least 25g protein at 1 eating occasion was compared with those consuming same level of protein at 2 and 3 or more eating occasions. Grip strength of individuals in quartile 1 of mean daily protein intake was compared to those in the other quartiles. All associations were examined without and with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, health status, and smoking status. The comparison involving eating occasions was further adjusted for daily protein intake. The comparison between protein intake quartiles was further adjusted for energy intake. Only 33% of men and 19% of women had protein intake of at least 25g at 2 or more eating occasions. These individuals also had higher grip strength and mean daily protein intake. Grip strength was positively associated with consumption of at least 25g protein at 2 eating occasions as compared to consumption of same level of protein at 1 eating occasion (p<0.05) in unadjusted model, but not after adjusting for confounders. Grip strength was positively associated with mean daily protein intake among women in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05) of protein intake in both unadjusted and adjusted models compared to lowest protein intake. Among men, grip strength was associated with mean daily protein intake in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05) in the unadjusted model, but not when adjusted. In a nationally representative sample of older adults, consuming at least 25g protein at 2 or more eating occasions was not associated with grip strength. However, higher daily protein intake was positively associated with grip strength in women.