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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Boston, Massachusetts » Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #345523

Research Project: Genomics, Nutrition, and Health

Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

Title: Mediterranean Diet adherence and genetic background roles within a web-based nutritional intervention: The Food4Me Study

Author
item SAN-CRISTOBAL, RODRIGO - University Of Navarra
item NAVAS-CARRETERO, SANTIAGO - University Of Navarra
item LIVINGSTONE, KATHERINE - Newcastle University
item CELIS-MORALES, CARLOS - Newcastle University
item MACREADY, ANNA - University Of Reading
item FALLAIZE, ROSALIND - University Of Reading
item O'DONOVAN, CLARE - University College - Ireland
item LAMBRINOU, CHRISTINA - Harokopio University Of Athens
item MOSCHONIS, GEORGE - Harokopio University Of Athens
item MARSAUX, CYRIL - Maastricht University
item MANIOS, YANNIS - Harokopio University Of Athens
item MIROSLAW, JAROSZ - Instytut Zywnosci Zywienia
item HANNELORE, DANIEL - Technische Universitat Munchen
item GIBNEY, EILEEN - University College - Ireland
item BRENNAN, LORRAINE - University College - Ireland
item DREVON, CHRISTIAN - University Of Oslo
item GUNDERSEN, THOMAS - Vitas Ltd
item GIBNEY, MIKE - University College - Ireland
item SARIS, WIM - Maastricht University
item LOVEGROVE, JULIE - University Of Reading
item GRIMALDI, KEITH - Eurogenetica Ltd
item Parnell, Laurence
item BOUWMAN, JILDAU - The Netherlands Organisation For Applied Scientific Research (TNO)
item VAN OMMEN, BEN - The Netherlands Organisation For Applied Scientific Research (TNO)
item MATHERS, JOHN - Newcastle University
item MARTINEZ, J. ALFREDO - University Of Navarra

Submitted to: Nutrients
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/9/2017
Publication Date: 10/11/2017
Citation: San-Cristobal, R., Navas-Carretero, S., Livingstone, K.M., Celis-Morales, C., Macready, A.L., Fallaize, R., O'Donovan, C.B., Lambrinou, C.P., Moschonis, G., Marsaux, C.F., Manios, Y., Miroslaw, J., Hannelore, D., Gibney, E.R., Brennan, L., Drevon, C.A., Gundersen, T.E., Gibney, M., Saris, W.H., Lovegrove, J.A., Grimaldi, K., Parnell, L.D., Bouwman, J., Van Ommen, B., Mathers, J.C., Martinez, J. 2017. Mediterranean Diet adherence and genetic background roles within a web-based nutritional intervention: The Food4Me Study. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101107.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101107

Interpretive Summary: Although the Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to promote numerous health benefits, natural genetic differences can explain how some people respond differently to specific dietary patterns. Furthermore, such age-related diseases as cardiovascular disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes are often preceded by metabolic syndrome, which is a set of clinical measures indicating overall status of the cardiovascular system. This study explored how genetic differences in a set of genes with important roles in metabolic syndrome relate to following a Mediterranean diet. Some studies examine genetic differences one by one and in isolation. A unique aspect of this work was joining several single genetic differences into one unit of overall risk for poor status in metabolic syndrome. This is termed a genetic risk score and is important because the genes do not function in isolation. Key results from the study showed that adhering to a Mediterranean diet could be more beneficial in lowering blood cholesterol for those persons whose genetic risk was highest for poor metabolic syndrome status. Another important finding suggested similarly increased benefits regarding measures for obesity and blood sugar (glucose). The results of this research emphasize the importance of genetics in response to diet. Some people will experience greater or reduced benefits of following a Mediterranean diet based on a collection of common genetic differences.

Technical Abstract: Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has proved to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies can explain some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aims to explore the effects and the interactions of MedDiet adherence and the genetic background throughout a web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected, as well as genotypes from several genetic variants related to metabolic syndrome features. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles related to metabolic syndrome features and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) based on validated food intake was estimated. Linear mixed model analyses for repeated measurements showed a significant lower reduction on total cholesterol in participants with high GRS after 6 months of intervention, meanwhile MDS exhibited greater decrease on BMI, waist circumference and glucose. The effects of MDS on anthropometrical measurements exhibited to be modulated when were analysed together with GRS, preserving the differences only for those volunteers who presented a lower GRS. Furthermore, an interaction between GRS and MDS was found for circulating carotenoids in blood. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic and dietary outcomes depending on the genetic background.