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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Logan, Utah » Poisonous Plant Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #345439

Research Project: Understanding and Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Poisonous Plants on Livestock Production Systems

Location: Poisonous Plant Research

Title: Toxin-producing Epichloë bromicola strains symbiotic with the forage grass Elymus dahuricus in China

Author
item SHI, CHONG - Xinjiang Agricultural University
item AN, SHAZHOU - Xinjiang Agricultural University
item YAO, ZHENGPEI - Xinjiang Agricultural University
item YOUNG, CAROLYN - Noble Research Institute
item PANACCIONE, DANIEL - West Virginia University
item Lee, Stephen
item SCHARDL, CHRISTOPHER - University Of Kentucky
item LI, CHUNJIE - Lanzhou University

Submitted to: Mycologia
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/9/2017
Publication Date: 3/12/2018
Citation: Shi, C., An, S., Yao, Z., Young, C.A., Panaccione, D.G., Lee, S.T., Schardl, C.L., Li, C. 2018. Toxin-producing Epichloë bromicola strains symbiotic with the forage grass Elymus dahuricus in China. Mycologia. 109(6):847-859. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1426941.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1426941

Interpretive Summary: Cool-season grasses an important forage component for livestock in western China, and many of the common species have seed-transmitted symbionts of the fungal genus Epichloë. The Epichloë species are known worldwide from almost all tribes of the Poöideae and vary considerably in their alkaloids, of which ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes can be toxic to mammals, whereas lolines and peramine are protective against invertebrates. We characterized genotypes and alkaloid profiles of Epichloë bromicola isolates symbiotic with Elymus dahuricus, an important forage grass in rangelands of China. This endophyte was seed-transmitted and, though it occasionally produced fruiting bodies on El. dahuricus inflorescences, it was not observed to develop the sexual state. The genome sequence of E. bromicola isolate E7626 from El. dahuricus in Xinjiang Province revealed gene sets for peramine, ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes. El. dahuricus endophyte isolates from Beijing and two locations in Shanxi Province, most were also positive for these genes. Ergovaline and other ergot alkaloids, terpendoles and other indole-diterpenes, and peramine were confirmed in El. dahuricus plants with E. bromicola. The presence of ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes in this grass is a potential concern for grazing livestock.

Technical Abstract: Cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae) are an important forage component for livestock in western China, and many of the common species have seed-transmitted symbionts (endophytes) of the fungal genus Epichloë. The Epichloë species are known worldwide from almost all tribes of the Poöideae and vary considerably in their alkaloids, of which ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes can be toxic to mammals, whereas lolines and peramine are protective against invertebrates. We characterized genotypes and alkaloid profiles of Epichloë bromicola isolates symbiotic with Elymus dahuricus, an important forage grass in rangelands of China. This endophyte was seed-transmitted and, though it occasionally produced fruiting bodies (stromata) on El. dahuricus inflorescences, it was not observed to develop the sexual state. The genome sequence of E. bromicola isolate E7626 from El. dahuricus in Xinjiang Province revealed gene sets for peramine, ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes. In multiplex PCR screens of El. dahuricus endophyte isolates from Beijing and two locations in Shanxi Province, most were also positive for these genes. Ergovaline and other ergot alkaloids, terpendoles and other indole-diterpenes, and peramine were confirmed in El. dahuricus plants with E. bromicola. The presence of ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes in this grass is a potential concern for grazing livestock.