Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics ResearchTitle: An insect nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) functions as an effector protein in wheat - Hessian fly interactions
|WANG, ZHUHONG - Fujian Academy|
|GE, JUN-QING - Fujian Academy|
|CHEN, HANG - Chinese Agricultural University|
|CHENG, XIAOYAN - Kansas State University|
|YANG, YIQUN - Kansas State University|
|LIN, JUN - Kansas State University|
|WHITWORTH, ROBERT - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/13/2018
Publication Date: 9/1/2018
Citation: Wang, Z., Ge, J., Chen, H., Cheng, X., Yang, Y., Lin, J., Whitworth, R.J., Chen, M. 2018. An insect nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) functions as an effector protein in wheat - Hessian fly interactions. Journal of Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 100:30-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2018.06.003.
Interpretive Summary: Hessian fly is a major pest of wheat. Hessian fly larvae can suppress wheat growth and change metabolic pathways of the attacked wheat plant. The manipulation of wheat plants is thought to be achieved by injecting insect salivary proteins (so-called effectors) into wheat tissue during feeding. Identifying the effector proteins and revealing their functional mechanisms are needed to develop wheat cultivars with more durable resistance to the Hessian fly. So far, however, no effector protein has been identified directly from infested plants. In this study, we identified a Hessian fly protein inside wheat tissues during insect feeding. The injected protein is called nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), which is an enzyme that is involved in DNA synthesis and energy metabolism. Presence of the protein was correlated with several metabolic changes in the plant tissue. Our data suggests that Hessian fly larvae injected NDK into wheat tissues as an effector protein to play a role in manipulating host plant metabolism.
Technical Abstract: Like pathogens, galling insects deliver effectors into plant tissues that induce gall formation. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, also called Hessian fly, can convert a whole wheat seedling into a gall by inducing the formation of nutritive cells at the feeding site, inhibiting wheat growth, and reprogramming metabolic pathways of the attacked plant. So far, however, no effector protein has been identified directly from infested plants. Here we demonstrated the identification of a secreted Hessian fly protein, the nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), in infested wheat plants through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and western blots. In association with the NDK presence, enzymatic activity of NDK increased significantly in wheat tissues at the feeding site. In addition, there was a sudden increase in ATP abundance at the feeding site of infested susceptible wheat seedlings 24 hours following Hessian fly larval infestation. Our data points to the direction that Hessian fly larvae injected NDK into wheat tissues as an effector protein which plays a role in manipulating host plants and converting the plants into galls.