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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Geneva, New York » Grape Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #343723

Research Project: Improving Fruit Quality, Disease Resistance, and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress in Grape

Location: Grape Genetics Research

Title: Patterns of genomic and phenomic diversity in wine and table grapes

Author
item Migicovsky, Zoe - Dalhousie University
item Sawler, Jason - Dalhousie University
item Gardner, Kyle - Dalhousie University
item Aradhya, Mallikarjuna
item Prins, Bernard - Bernie
item Schwaninger, Heidi
item Bustamente, Carlos - Stanford School Of Medicine
item Buckler, Edward - Ed
item Zhong, Gan-yuan
item Brown, Patrick - University Of Illinois
item Myles, Sean - Dalhousie University

Submitted to: Horticulture Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2017
Publication Date: 7/12/2017
Citation: Migicovsky, Z., Sawler, J., Gardner, K., Aradhya, M.K., Prins, B.H., Schwaninger, H.R., Bustamente, C., Buckler, E.S., Zhong, G., Brown, P., Myles, S. 2017. Patterns of genomic and phenomic diversity in wine and table grapes. Horticulture Research. 4:17035. doi: 10.1038/hortres.2017.35.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2017.35

Interpretive Summary: Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. To provide genetic material for grape variety improvement, USDA Agricultural Research Service maintains a world-class collection of grape cultivars, wild grapes, and other breeding material. In this study, we evaluated variation patterns (difference) across 33 traits collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape cultivars. We found much difference in many traits in these grape cultivars investigated. For example, dramatic difference was observed in berry size between table and wine grapes. Further, we used a tool, called molecular markers, and identified candidate loci (genes) controlling traits that have been targeted during grape domestication and breeding, including flower sex, skin colour and muscat aroma. We concluded that breeding for larger berries in table grapes was traditionally concentrated in geographic regions where Islam predominates and alcohol was prohibited, while wine grapes retained the ancestral smaller size that is more desirable for winemaking in predominantly Christian regions. We uncovered a potential cause (gene) for controlling berry size. Our results suggested that religious rules concerning alcohol consumption have had a dramatic impact on how grapes were domesticated.

Technical Abstract: Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape cultivars that belong to one of the world’s largest grape gene banks, the USDA’s grape germplasm collection. We find that phenological events throughout the growing season are correlated, and we quantify the dramatic difference in size between table and wine grapes. By pairing these publicly available historical phenotype data with genome-wide polymorphism data, we use selective sweep mapping together with genome-wide association mapping to identify large effect loci controlling traits that have been targeted during domestication and breeding, including flower sex, skin colour and muscat aroma. Breeding for larger berries in table grapes was traditionally concentrated in geographic regions where Islam predominates and alcohol was prohibited, while wine grapes retained the ancestral smaller size that is more desirable for winemaking in predominantly Christian regions. We uncover a novel locus with a suggestive association with berry size that harbors a signature of positive selection for larger berries. Our results suggest that religious rules concerning alcohol consumption have had a dramatic impact on patterns of phenomic and genomic diversity in grapes.