|Miller, Samuel - Eastern Mennonite University|
|Siderhurst, Matthew - Eastern Mennonite University|
Submitted to: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/17/2017
Publication Date: 12/27/2017
Citation: Wall, M.M., Miller, S., Siderhurst, M.S. 2018. Volatile changes in Hawaiian noni fruit, Morinda citrifolia L., during ripening and fermentation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 98:3391-3399. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8850.
Interpretive Summary: Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Noni juice is available as a nutritional supplement in the marketplace, but the processing of noni lacks standardization. Volatile compounds produced by the noni fruit were quantified during different stages of ripening and fermentation to characterize the unique aroma profiles. Analyses based on 23 identified volatiles were subsequently used as markers for noni fruit ripeness or fermentation. In addition, four novel volatile esters were identified for the first time in noni fruit through synthesis of reference compounds.
Technical Abstract: Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L., Rubiaceae) have been used in traditional medicine in Polynesia, South and Southeast Asia, India, Australia, and the Caribbean, and are now attracting interest in western medicine. Fermented noni juice has been of particular interest for its demonstrated antitumor activity. The current study identified and relatively quantified volatiles released by the noni fruit during ripening and fermentation. Volatiles were collected and analyzed at nine time intervals using headspace autosampling (HS) coupled to gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). In addition to volatiles previously identified in noni fruit, four novel volatile 3-methyl-2/3-butenyl esters were identified through synthesis of reference compounds. Data were analyzed by principle component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to facilitate multidimensional pattern recognition. PCA showed that ripening noni fruit cluster into three groups, pre-ripe, fully ripe (translucent), and fermented, based on released volatiles. CDA could 83.8% correctly classify noni samples when all ripeness stages were analyzed and 100% when samples were classified into the three PCA groupings.