Skip to main content
ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Virus and Prion Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #342970

Research Project: Non-Antibiotic Strategies to Control Priority Bacterial Infections in Swine

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Interferon alpha inhibits viral replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine

Author
item Brockmeier, Susan
item Loving, Crystal
item Eberle, Kirsten - Orise Fellow
item Hau, Samantha - Iowa State University
item Buckley, Alexandra - Orise Fellow
item Van Geelen, Albert - Orise Fellow
item Montiel, Nestor - Orise Fellow
item Nicholson, Tracy
item Lager, Kelly

Submitted to: Veterinary Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/5/2017
Publication Date: 12/1/2017
Citation: Brockmeier, S.L., Loving, C.L., Eberle, K.C., Hau, S.J., Buckley, A., Van Geelen, A., Montiel, N.A., Nicholson, T., Lager, K.M. 2017. Interferon alpha inhibits replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine. Veterinary Microbiology. 212:48-51.

Interpretive Summary: Interferon alpha (IFNa) is produced in response to virus infections to help the host inhibit viral replication and develop a stronger immune response to the pathogen. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and costly viruses to the swine industry world-wide and has been shown to induce a meager IFNa response in pigs. Previously we have shown that giving IFNa to pigs infected with PRRSV reduces viral replication and enhances the immune response to the virus. In the current experiment, we explored the use of IFNa as an adjuvant given with live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine to determine if it would result in an enhanced immune response to the vaccine. Unlike the previous studies with fully virulent virus, one injection of the Ad5-IFNa totally abolished replication of the vaccine virus and as a result there was no detectible adaptive immune response following vaccination. Although IFNa did not have the desired adjuvant effect, the results are promising for the use of IFNa as a treatment for PRRSV infection.

Technical Abstract: Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFNa), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and costly viruses to the swine industry world-wide and has been shown to induce a meager IFNa response. Previously we administered porcine IFNa using a replication-defective adenovirus vector (Ad5-IFNa) during challenge with virulent PRRSV and demonstrated an increase in the number of virus-specific IFN-gamma secreting cells, indicating that the presence of IFNa at the time of infection can alter the adaptive immune responses to PRRSV. In the current experiment, we explored the use of IFNa as an adjuvant given with live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine to determine if it would result in an enhanced immune response to the vaccine. Unlike the previous studies with fully virulent virus, one injection of the Ad5-IFNa abolished replication of the vaccine virus and as a result there was no detectible adaptive immune response. Although IFNa did not have the desired adjuvant effect, the results are promising for the use of IFNa as a treatment for PRRSV infection.